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The role of Gas accretion on Galaxy transformations

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  1. N1433 The role of Gas accretionon Galaxy transformations N5044 Françoise Combes Observatoire de Paris 20 May 2019 A1795

  2. Whatwill SPICA observe? Spinoglio et al 2017

  3. Line Diagnostics Disentangle excitation: AGN, starbursts Circum- Galacticgas CGM Spinoglio et al 2017

  4. Formation of galaxies by gasaccretion Red= temperatureGreen= metallicityBlue = density Accretion of cold gas on galaxies, thenfeedback, enrichment Essential for Angularmomentum>> fate of the galaxy Agertz et al 2009

  5. Passage through the green valley Different time-scales 2-4 Gyr 100 Myr Hot Gas SF, AGN Hot gas Ellipticals Spirals Schawinski 2013

  6. HI Simulations of CGM Black/Blue Ly-limit Orange/red, DLA SiII SiIII Peeples et al 2019

  7. Diagnostic in absorption (MUSE MEGAFLOW) ais the position angle of the QSO wrt the major axis of the galaxy i the inclination of the galaxy on the los Gasfrequentlyoutflowing When in the disk, itrotateswithit Zabl et al 2019

  8. MUSE detectionof « cold » atomicgasilluminated by quasars • Blind survey for giant Ly-a nebulae around 17 bright RQQ at 3<z<4 • All QSO have 100-320kpc Ly-a nebulae • Borisova et al 2016 • Ubiquitous, like the Slug nebula, • Fluorescence of gas up to 500kpc • at z=2, 1012Mfilament • Cantalupo et al 2014 • Also absorption lines in front of the QSO •  60% filling factor of “cold” dense gas Density -400<V<400km/s DV ~600km/s Keck/LRIS Borisova et al 2016

  9. ExtendedLyahaloesaround galaxies Galaxies between 3 < z < 6 Lya5-15 x extendedthan UV continuum Extension of severalkpc Medium neutral in a large part Wisotzki et al 2016

  10. Circum-galacticgas Field of 1’ x 1’ HDF-South 270 LAE 3< z < 6 Large gasreservoirs: inflows, outflows, both MUSE: Lyaextensions Alsotraced by absorption DLA, or Lyaforest Wisotzki et al 2018

  11. Ly-a blobs: dynosaursat z=2-3 100-150kpc Yang et al 2014 Badescu et al 2017 Overdensity of LAE Outflow, Blue absorp. DV > 0

  12. Scuba-2 detection in SSA22-LAB1 at z=3.1 • Lyman-Break (C11, C15) • LAB of 100kpc, Polarisation >> Ring • Survey in Spitzer 24mm of about 20 LAE • within a LAB(Colbert et al 2011) • More thanhalf are ULIRG or HyperLIRG • About 25% of LAB have an AGN inside • But all LABs are detected as 24mm blobs CGM: outflow, pristinegas, or both? Geach et al 2014

  13. Extended cold gas Spiderweb (Emonts et al 18) CANDELS-5001, (Ginolfi et al 17) CI contours with ALMA CO(4-3) on HST Red contours, radio cont z=3.5 protocluster

  14. X-ray Perseus A , Fabian et al 2003 Coolingflows: Perseus Star formation (green) Canning et al 2014 Molecular Gas Salomé et al 2006 M(H2) ~1010 M 115kpc

  15. H2 mapping in cooling filaments 1-0 S(1) ro-vibrational transition, in the NIR Ha+[NII] H2 85kpc Lim et al 2012 WIRCAM, CFHT 2mm

  16. Perseus: Herschel photometry PACS 100mm 7’’ Three colors, 12’’ Dust in filaments Some mixing from the central gas Mittal et al 2012

  17. Perseus: Herschel photometry Warm dust Twarm=107 K Mwarm= 2 104M Cold dust Tcold= 35K Mcold= 8 106M Mittal et al 2012

  18. Line emissionwith Herschel PACS [OI]63mm & 145mm, [OIII]88mm [CII]158mm, [NII]122mm observed in A1068, A2597, Perseus, Centaurus… [CII], [OI] main coolants of the atomicgas Associatedto the CO, and their FIR to gas ratio isusual for SFregions Centaurus A2597 Lensed Hello z=1-3 A1068 Perseus SPT high-z QSO z>4 ULIRG z=1-6 [CII] and [OI] lines in A1068 Edge et al 2010

  19. Perseus: OI, CII with Herschel Same morphology + Same spectra between CO(2-1) and OI Same gas, cooling through different phases? No rotation, but inflows Edge et al 2010

  20. Cold gas in filaments Inflow and outflow coexist The molecular gas coming from previous cooling is dragged out by the AGN feedback The bubbles create inhomogeneities and further cooling At R~20kpc, tc/tff ~10 thermal instability (McCourt et al 12) The cooled gas fuels the AGN Velocity much lower than free-fall Salome et al 2008, 2011

  21. Dense gas in the center Absorption HCN(3-2) Density contours V-field in color Nagai et al 2019, ALMA HCN(3-2) HCO+(3-2) Excited H2emission 2mm Scharwaechter et al 13

  22. Inflow or outflow? Both are expected: inflow to fuel the AGN, outflow due to feedback Necessary to efficiently mix the gas, and spread the abundances, CO, … Mixture of cold and hot gasdecreases T (w/o radiation)  precipitation Conditions for cooling, and where? tcool/tff ~10-30 (uniform) But thermal instabilities (McCourt et al 2012) and alsoinhomogeneities due to the cavities, AGN feedback, etc.. Chaotic Cold Accretion (CCA) Gaspari et al 2011, 2012 Voit etal 2015, Lau etal 2017 T SB-X rcold Z

  23. Cooling processes Tcool (yr) Ha No Ha ACCEPT sample Conduction preventscooling R (kpc) R (kpc) precipitation threshold at tcool/tff ≈ 10 cosmological baseline Entropy index K0 in keVcm2 (=kT ne-2/3)  Multiphasegas cools down over 1-20kpc Cold-phase accretion No hot Bondi accretion Voit et al 2015

  24. Triggering cold gas accretion Fraternali & Binney 2008 Marinacci et al 2011 Either in the MW or NGC891 Fountain effect, helps the hot corona to cool NGC891 Marasco et al 2013, 2017

  25. X-rays McDonald et al 2009 60kpc tail Ha Trailing wake A1795 bubble tcool= 300Myr= tdyn Salome & Combes 2004 Russel et al 2017

  26. ALMA: cold gas in cool core clusters Abell 2597 ALMA CO(2-1) absorption in front of the AGN synchrotron Red-shifted only Dense clouds fueling the AGN Tremblay et al 2016

  27. Abell 2597 M(H2) = 3 109 M within 30kpc Tremblay et al 2018 Inflow + outflow, alsodeviation of the jet by the molecularclouds No free-fall rICM VT2 A=Mcl GM/R2 =MclV2/R rICM R ~NH2 = 1022 cm2 rICM~0.1-0.2cm-3 R~15-30kpc

  28. ALMA, cold gas in X-ray groups CO molecularclouds (blue & red-shifted), on the Chandra image N5044 HST image Masses of the clumps, or GMA, 3 105 to 107 M, 10-50km/s No rotatingdisk, but clumpsalso in absorption David et al 2014

  29. Chandra X-ray, Ha and CO in groups N4636 N5044 N5846 5 kpc Ha contours 10 kpc 3 kpc 2.6 105 Mo 2.0 106 Mo 6.1 107 Mo Origin of the cold gas: coolingfrom the hot medium (dust-enhanced) Virial ratio >> 1 (20-200) compatible with CCA Temi et al 2017

  30. Ram-pressure stripping: resilienttails ESO137-001: violent ram-pressure, bu CO gasremains, and reforms  molecular filaments, with Ha and X-rays Jachym et al 2014: Norma cluster

  31. ALMA CO more H2 in the tailthan in disk  in situ Jachym et al 2019

  32. Summary CGM detectednow in emission (Lya, CI, CO..) Mostly due to outflows, someinflow, excited by starbursts and AGN  AGN fuelingregulatedby AGN feedback Uplift of low-entropygas by buoyancy Cold gasinfalls to the AGN in filaments, no free-fall slowed down by ram-pressure Coolingwakes, when the BCG is in motion Moleculesreform in the filaments Molecular filaments throughtides and ram-pressure from galaxies in the clusters