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NUMBERS IN ASTRONOMY See Appendix 4 & 5 Some numbers are very small E.g. Diameter of Hydrogen Atom is about 0.00000001 cm .0000000000001 cm Proton Electron .00000001 cm Hydrogen Atom NUMBERS in ASTRONOMY NUMBERS in ASTRONOMY Some numbers are very small Other numbers are very large

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numbers in astronomy

NUMBERS IN ASTRONOMY

See Appendix 4 & 5

numbers in astronomy2

Some numbers are very small

  • E.g. Diameter of Hydrogen Atom is about 0.00000001 cm

.0000000000001 cm

Proton

Electron

.00000001 cm

Hydrogen Atom

NUMBERS in ASTRONOMY
numbers in astronomy3
NUMBERS in ASTRONOMY
  • Some numbers are very small
  • Other numbers are very large
    • E.g. size of galaxy 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 cm
  • E.g. Diameter of Hydrogen Atom is 0.00000001 cm
numbers in astronomy5
NUMBERS in ASTRONOMY
  • Some numbers are very small
  • The number of zeros is denoted by an exponent of 10.
  • This exponent is positive if the number is larger than 1.
    • 10N is 1 followed by N zeros
    • E.g. 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 is written as 1023
  • The exponent (power) is negative if the number is smaller than 1.
    • 10-N represents a 1 in the Nth place after the decimal
    • E.g. 0.00000001 is written as 10-8
  • E.g. size of Hydrogen Atom (GS) is 0.00000001 cm
  • Other numbers are very large
  • E.g. size of galaxy 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 cm
  • Powers of 10 Notation
powers of 10 notation
POWERS OF 10 NOTATION
  • 10N is 1 followed by N zeros
  • 103 is 1000
  • 108 is 100,000,000
  • 10-N is a 1 in the Nth decimal place after the decimal point
  • 10-3 is 0.001
  • 10-8 is 0.00000001
  • More complicated numbers are represented by a combination of a power of 10 and a multiplying factor
  • 0.000000025 is 2.5 x 10-8
  • 64,000 is 6.4 x 104
numbers in astronomy7
NUMBERS IN ASTRONOMY
  • Rule for Multiplication
  • Multiply the factors and add the powers
    • E.g. 2 x 104 times 3 x 105 is   (2x3) x 10(4+5) = 6 x 109
  • Rule for Division
  • Divide the factors and subtract the powers
    • E.g. 5 x 106 divided by 2 x 104 is (52) x 10(6-4) = 2.5 x 102
test yourself

Answer: 1.989 x 1030 kg

TEST YOURSELF
  • The mass of the Sun is: 1,989,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg. Write this mass in the powers-of-ten notation.
flashcard

The Gross National Product of Canada in

2000 was 7.6 x 1011 Canadian Dollars. There are 3 x 107 people in Canada. What is the amount of GNP per person?

A) 2.5 x 103

B) 2.5 x 104

C) 2.5 x 105

D) 2.5 x 106

FLASHCARD
flashcard10
FLASHCARD

The centre of our Galaxy is 7 x 1016 km from us. UNBC (in Prince George) is about 5 x 102 km away from us. How many times farther (in powers of 10 notation) is the Galactic centre from us compared to UNBC?

A) 3.5 x 1019

B) 1.4 x 108

  • C)1.4 x 1014
  • D) 7.1 x 10-15
flashcard11

The mass of our Galaxy is about 7 x 1011 times the mass of our Sun. There are about 1011 galaxies in the Universe. If an average star weighs about half that of our Sun, about how many stars are there in the Universe?

A) 7 x 10121

B) 14 x 1022

C) 7 x 1022

D) 7

FLASHCARD
units in astronomy
UNITS in ASTRONOMY
  • Mass: kilograms (kg)
  • Time: seconds (s) or years (y)
  • Distance: meters (m), kilometers (km), light years (ly), or Astronomical Units (AU)
  • A light year is the distance light travels in one year
  • Speed of light = 3 x 105 km/s
  • There are 3 x 107 seconds in a year
  • Thus a lightyear is (3 x 105) x (3 x 107) = 9 x 1012 km
  • An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance between Earth and the Sun (1.5 x 108 km)
units in astronomy14
UNITS in ASTRONOMY
  • Light year:
  • This is the distance which light will travel in the period of 1 year
  • The speed of light (c) is 3 x 105 km/s
  • There are 3 x 107 seconds in a year
  • Thus, a light year is (3 x 105) x (3 x 107) = 9 x 1012 km
  • Note: the star nearest the Sun (Proxima Centauri) lies at a distance of 4.26 ly (or 38 million million km!)
  • Astronomical Unit:
  • This is the mean Earth-Sun distance, and is about 1.5 x 108 km ( 150 million km)
  • Solar Mass
  • This is a convenient unit to use for mass and is equal to the mass of our own Sun (1.9891 x 1030 kg)
  • Your instructor weighs in at a hefty 4 x 10-29 solar masses
units in astronomy15
UNITS in ASTRONOMY
  • Temperature:
  • Use Degrees Kelvin (K)
  • K = C + 273
  • C water freezes at 0C boils at 100C
  • K water freezes at 273K boils at 373K
  • Room Temperature about 300K
  • 0K = - 273C is absolute 0
angular measurement

360 degrees

270 degrees

90 degrees

180 degrees

ANGULAR MEASUREMENT

angular measurement17

1 degree = 60 minutes

1 minute = 60 seconds

ANGULAR MEASUREMENT

360 degrees in a full circle

flashcard19

WHAT IS THE ANGULAR SIZE OF THE MOON AS SEEN FROM THE EARTH?

A)0.5 degree

B) 5 degrees

C) 10 degrees

D) 50 degrees

FLASHCARD