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A CHALLENGE FOR SUSTAINABLE, CLEAN ENERGY C.Borcea. NEUTRON DATA. OUTLOOK. INTRODUCTION NEUTRON DATA (ND): WHY AND HOW ND AT IRMM NP CONCLUSION. INTRODUCTION. RECENT HOT LINES IN THE NEWS: -CHERNOBYL -PRICE OF CRUDE IMPLICATIONS: MAKE NUCLEAR ENERGY SAFE AND CLEAN BY

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Presentation Transcript
outlook
OUTLOOK
  • INTRODUCTION
  • NEUTRON DATA (ND): WHY AND HOW
  • ND AT IRMM NP
  • CONCLUSION

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introduction
INTRODUCTION

RECENT HOT LINES IN THE NEWS:

-CHERNOBYL

-PRICE OF CRUDE

IMPLICATIONS:

MAKE NUCLEAR ENERGY SAFE AND CLEAN BY

-NEW GENERATION OF REACTORS

-WASTE PROCESSING

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neutron data what is that
NEUTRON DATA: WHAT IS THAT?

DATA CONCERNING THE CROSS SECTIONS OF NEUTRON INDUCED REACTIONS ON VARIOUS MATERIALS

The neutron can:

-scatter elastically

-scatter in-elastically (followed by  emission)

-be captured (followed by gamma end/or particle

emission)

-induce fission

-induce a (n,xn) or a (n,cp) reaction

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slide5
standards

systematics

level densities

spins, parities

theory

Temperature

effects

shielding

Neutron

data

waste

sustainability

safety

Safety

margins

Higher burn-up

ADS , HTR

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neutron data what for
NEUTRON DATA: WHAT FOR?
  • REACTORS OF A NEW GENERATION AND/OR ADS
  • RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING
  • FUSION REACTORS (ITER)
  • SAFETY AND SAFEGUARDS
  • MEDICINE, FORENSICS
  • ELEMENT TRACING, etc.

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nuclear energy key issues
NUCLEAR ENERGY KEY ISSUES
  • SAFETY (keff)
  • SUSTAINABLE (BU, CLOSED CYCLE)
  • WASTE (P&T)
  • NONPROLIFERATION

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new generation reactors how
NEW GENERATION REACTORS: HOW?

DESIGN OF INOVATIVE NEW REACTOR TYPES IS DONE ESSENTIALLY BY USING:

-PERFORMANT, STATE OF THE ART CODES FOR MONTE CARLO SIMULATION and

-RELIABLE CROSS SECTION LIBRARIES WITH INFO CONCERNING THE DATA PRECISSION

-BENCHMARKING

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waste processing p t
WASTE PROCESSING: P&T
  • Radiotoxicity of Nuclear Waste:
  • production of Pu and "minor actinides" (Np, Am,...) by "breeding" (combination of neutron capture and beta decay)
  • production of long-lived radioactive fission products

Partitioning:

separate and recycle U, Pu

Transmutation:

"burn" minor actinides (by neutron-induced fission),

"transform" long-lived fission products into short-lived or stable isotopes (by neutron capture)

requires fast neutrons

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libraries what is the present status
LIBRARIES: WHAT IS THE PRESENT STATUS?
  • MANY LIBRARIES, GENERALLY CONCORDANT BUT:
  • ZONES WHERE DATA ARE ABSENT OR LARGE (20% or more) UNCERTAINTIES (especially for structural materials but also for MA)
  • REGIONS WHERE DATA ARE DISCREPANT
  • CROSS SECTIONS EXIST BUT DATA PRECISSION AND CROSS INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FACTORS (SO CALLED COVARANCE MARIX) INSUFFICIENTLY KNOWN OR NOT KNOWN AT ALL

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slide11
ILLUSTRATION

Example 1: large uncertainties in data files due to lack of experimental data

extrapolations based on previous knowledge

IRMM

previous knowledge

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slide12
120

Paul (1953)

Cross (1963)

Preiss (1960)

Qaim (1977)

Bahal (1984)

Qaim (1984)

Viennot

Ribansky (1985)

80

Viennot (1991)

Molla (1991)

Osman (1996)

cross section (mb)

Val'ter (1962)

Levkovskiy (1969)

IRMM

40

61

Co: N=24/2.499 MeV; 6.48/-.89: D

=1.50 keV

0

N=11/1.682 MeV; 6.85/-.87: 0.95

N=24/2.499 MeV ; 6.85/-.75: 1.04

TALYS_0.49

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

neutron energy (MeV)

ILLUSTRATION

Example 2: large uncertainties in data files due to

inaccurate experimental data

61Ni(n,p)61Co

predictions from model codes

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neutron data how
NEUTRON DATA: HOW?
  • A NEUTRON SOURCE IS MANDATORY
  • THERE IS NOT AN ALL PURPOSE NEUTRON SOURCE
  • SUCH FACILITIES ARE HIGH-TECH INSTALLATIONS USSUALLY WITH TRANS-NATIONAL ACCESS

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ilustration neuron facilities in the world
ILUSTRATION: NEURON FACILITIES IN THE WORLD
  • LOS ALAMOS
  • OAK RIDGE
  • JAPAN
  • RUSSIA
  • n_TOF (CERN)
  • GELINA (IRMM)
  • VdG accelerators (France, Germany, Belgium, etc.)
  • HIGH-FLUX REACTORS
  • FUTURE: SPIRAL2?

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neutron data focus on gelina
NEUTRON DATA: FOCUS ON GELINA
  • IRMM: A TRADITION IN QUALITY NUCLEAR DATA
  • FACILITY, CHARACTERISTICS
  • CAPTURE CROSS SECTIONS
  • TRANSMISSION CROSS SECTIONS
  • FISSION CROSS SECTIONS
  • INELASTIC AND (n,2n) CROSS SECTIONS

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reference laboratory for neutron physics
Reference Laboratory for Neutron Physics
  • Provide European safety authorities and industry with neutron data needed for:
  • the feasibility study of waste transmutation facilities and advanced systems
  • the safety assessment of nuclear installations and the nuclear fuel cycle

7 MV VdG

150 MeV

Electron Linac

High-resolution neutron

cross-section data

measurements

    • Facilities: GELINA and VdG
  • exclusively used for neutron production

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slide17
Geel Electron Linear Accelerator GELINA:

Continuous energy spectrum,

Time-of-flight measurements

n

L

e-

150 MeV

U

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gelina a powerful neutron source
GELINA: a powerful neutron source

High-energy electron accelerator

Electron-neutron conversion target

  • 150 MeV electron accelerator (10 ns, 10 A)
  • pulse compression to 1 ns and 100 A
  • 800 bursts / s
  • uranium target - mercury cooled
  • 4 1010 neutrons / burst

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slide19
CERN TOF Facility

spallation neutron source

24 GeV protons, 3·1013 p/pulse

Δt ~10 ns, frequency ~0.4 Hz

Pb target: 40 cm x 40 cm diam. + water moderator

Neutron production rate:

~ 2·1016 n/pulse

~ 1016 n/s ~forward directed

fixed flight path L: 200 m

~7·106 n/cm2 per pulse (2.4 s)

single user facility, En < 109 eV

very high n flux per pulse

radioactive targets, rare isotopes

GELINA

electrons  bremsstrahlung  neutrons

0.15 GeV electrons, 7.5·1011 e- /pulseΔt = 1 ns, frequency : 800 Hz

U target: torus, 3 cm x 30 cm outer diam. ( + water moderator )

Neutron production rate:

~ 4·1010 n/pulse

~ 3·1013 n/s ~isotropic

several stations with L ~ 10 m - 400 m

~3·103 - 2 n/cm2 per pulse (1.2 ms)

multi-user facility, En < 10 MeV

very high energy resolution,

flux ~ 1/3 of TOF in resonance region

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slide20
d

Ti/T

n

Van de Graaff accelerator

monochromatic neutrons via nuclear reactions

e.g.:

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slide21
radiotoxic inventory

Typical radiotoxic inventory as a function of time

in Sv per metric ton of heavy metal

fission

products

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slide22
radiotoxic inventory

contribution from long-lived fission products

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slide23
Nuclear Waste Transmutation

Example: long-lived fission product 129I via neutron capture:

129I (1.6 107 a) + n 130I (12.4 h) 130Xe (stable)

feasibility studies:

capture and transmission experiments

at GELINA (collab. with CEA)

+ n

129I

 -

130I

1.6 107 a

12.4 h

130Xe

stable

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slide25
206Pb(n,g): res. shape analysis

Experiments at GELINA

304 resonances observed (221 in evaluated files)

E0, g up to 620 keV(before up to 200 keV ); gn up to 80 keV

A. Borella,

P. Schillebeeckx

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slide26
Inelastic scattering

mechanism by which fast neutrons lose energy

energy spectrum in accelerator driven systems (ADS)

structural materials (Al,Fe) : criticality

coolant materials (Na,Pb) : coolant void effect

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slide27
27Al Inelastic Neutron Scattering

Eg=1.0145 MeV

Eg=0.8438 MeV

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58 ni inelastic cross section
58Ni, Inelastic cross section

L. Olah, DNE, HU

C. Borcea, SV, RO

L.C. Mihailescu, GH,RO

IReS Strasbourg

U. and TU Vienna

U. Belgrade

nTOF collaboration

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207 pb n n g and n 2n g measurements
207Pb(n,n’g) and (n,2ng) measurements

Mihailescu et al.

Rudolf et al.

200 m FP, Gelina

fast flux

8 ns FWHM TOF-resol.

4 HPGE (3x 95%, 1x 80 %)

Continuous energy up to 20 MeV

High resolution at low energy

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207 pb n n g
207Pb(n,n’g)

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romania and irmm np unit
ROMANIA AND IRMM-NP UNIT
  • VISITING SCIENTISTS (2 SENIOR RESEARCHERS FROM NIPNE-BUCHAREST AND 2 PROFESSORS FROM BUCHAREST UNIVERSITY)
  • DNE (2 SENIOR RESEARCHERS FROM NIPNE-BUCHAREST)
  • ONE PHD THESIS DONE IN IRMM (GRANT HOLDER)
  • 4 POST-DOCTORAL FELLOWS (NIPNE-BUCHAREST)
  • NEURON MEASUREMENTS, EVALUATIONS AND APPLICATIONS: NEMEA-2 WORKSHOP ORGANIZED BY IRMM AND NIPNE AT BUCHAREST (2004)

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conclusion
CONCLUSION
  • HIGH QUALITY NEUTRON DATA ARE NECESSARY
  • COMPLEMENTARITY AND COOPERATION
  • MEASUREMENT-EVALUATION CYCLE
  • ATRACT NEW INSTITUTIONS/PEOPLE
  • COMMUNICATE!

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