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Motivation and Discipline. Teaching is a combination of instruction and order (Doyle) To maintain order, you need motivation and discipline.

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motivation and discipline
Motivation and Discipline
  • Teaching is a combination of instruction and order (Doyle)
  • To maintain order, you need motivation and discipline
Fewer discipline problems occur when students are motivated through active involvement in meaningful learning and when enthusiastic teachers present material in stimulating ways
  • Students have neither the time nor the energy to create discipline problems
  • Teachers cannot motivate when students are disruptive
what motivates students
What motivates students?
  • Teachers CANNOT MOTIVATE students and make them learn
  • The teacher can only manipulate environmental factors
  • Motivation is impacted by the personal factors within the student and the external environment that can be manipulated by the teacher.
motivation is affected by
Motivation is affected by:
  • The degree of concern or tension that exists within the learner
  • The feeling tone -pleasant or unpleasant
  • Interest
  • Success
  • Knowledge of results
  • Intrinsic-extrinsic motivation
theories of motivation 2 social learning theory
Theories of motivation 2– social learning theory
  • Self-efficacy – situation specific confidence
  • Motivation involves 2 parts
    • A belief that he/she can be successful
    • A belief that the outcome will be worthwhile
  • A person is more likely to behave in a certain way if the outcome is positive and less likely if it is negative.
theories of motivation 2 social learning theory cont
Theories of motivation 2– social learning theory (Cont.)
  • You can improve self-efficacy by:
    • Personal performance accomplishments – best predictor of self-efficacy
    • Vicarious experiences (modeling)
    • Verbal persuasion
    • Emotional arousal
theories of motivation 3 attribution theory locus of control learned helplessness
Theories of motivation 3– attribution theory, locus of control, learned helplessness
  • Attribution theory – successes & failures due to things that are: internal/external; controllable/uncontrollable; stable/unstable
  • Locus of control – do you control things or do things control you?
learned helplessness
Learned helplessness
  • Does the students always give up quickly?
  • Does the student fail to demonstrate a variety of strategies after an unsuccessful attempt at a learning task?
  • Does the students always say, “I’m not good at this?”
  • Does the student not take credit when he/she does well?
  • Does the student tell you he/she doesn’t care, or just go through the motions?
how to correct this
How to correct this
  • Teach students to attribute failure to lack of effort – do NOT just give easy tasks.
  • Change the learning environment:
    • Set goals that are specific; hard, but attainable; and short-term. To do this, pre-test and analyze student errors
    • Select learning styles that fit students’ needs
      • Inclusion style
      • Competitive and non-competitive activities
      • Peer tutoring or heterogeneous learning groups
Change the learning environment (cont.):

3. Focus on progress NOT end result – maybe graph improvement

4. Once skill is mastered, have student attribute success to ability. It is important for them to see that success can be earned through effort.

If failure does occur, help them to attribute it to incorrect learning style not a lack of ability
  • Mastery-oriented classrooms stress progress and learning rather than performance and ability.
self fulfilling prophecy
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
  • Students perform in agreement with the perceived expectations of their teachers.
    • Rosenthal & Jacobson
    • Especially true of disadvantaged children in urban areas
self fulfilling prophecy cont
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (Cont.)
  • Research shows that physical educators form expectations based on: age or grade level, motor ability, physical attractiveness, perceived effort, and the presence or absence of a disability.
  • When low-skilled students internalize low teacher expectations, learned helplessness may result.
how to communicate high expectations to students
How to communicate high expectations to students
  • Present tasks holistically, concretely, and briefly using concrete examples, brief explanations, and cues
  • Help students refine, extend, and apply tasks (rather than jumping from one skill to another).
  • Provide specific task-related feedback to students and modify tasks as needed to ensure student success
do you cause the problem ask yourself
Do YOU cause the problem? Ask yourself…
  • Do I expect enough from my “low” ability students?
  • Do I present new and challenging materials to my “low” as well as my “high” ability students?
  • Do I smile as frequently at my poorest students as I do at my best students, at my least favorite as much as my favorite students?
do you cause the problem ask yourself17
Do YOU cause the problem? Ask yourself…
  • Do my nonverbal responses convey negative feelings to my “low” students (frowns, shrugs, rolling eyes)?
  • By creating a friendly environment, do I encourage all students to feel free to initiate a conversation with me?
  • Do I give as much corrective feedback on skill performance to my “low” ability students as my “high” ability students?
do you cause the problem ask yourself18
Do YOU cause the problem? Ask yourself…
  • Do I praise and respond positively to appropriate behavior and good performance for my “low” students or do I allow it to pass unnoticed?
  • Am I less tolerant of incorrect answers and inappropriate behavior of my “low” ability students?
  • Do I give my “low” ability students as much time to answer questions as my “high” ability students?
creating a learning environment to motivate students
Creating a Learning Environment to Motivate Students
  • While students bring in their “baggage” the teacher can:
  • With-it-ness and overlapping
  • Smoothness and momentum
  • Group alerting and accountability
  • Challenge and variety
with it ness
  • Knowing what is going on in the classroom at all times
  • Need to constantly scan the room – don’t just watch the action
  • Whole group – is easier to scan than station work -so much be more vigilant with stations
  • Monitor with your ears too.
  • If there is a problem – move closer, or give the look, regardless – deal with it!!
over lapping
  • Also called interruptions
  • When they occur, deal with it and return immediately to what you were doing.
  • Often asked to handle several things at once – be methodical and do it, but continue to scan the class.
smoothness and momentum
Smoothness and momentum
  • Lesson flow is critical to teaching effectiveness
  • Use student behaviors to re-direct a lesson -pacing is crucial.
  • Some will ignore small misbehaviors if they know the activity will stop it, but MUST deal with ANY misbehavior that is a safety issue.
Experienced teachers know when to interrupt a lesson to deal with misbehavior and when to keep moving.
  • Do NOT over-dwell on a misbehavior – move on
  • You can also cause the problems when you over-dwell on instructions – KISS
  • By keeping instructions simple or using visuals to explain, teachers can improve the pace of the lesson and avoid causing the problems
accountability group alerting
Accountability & Group Alerting
  • “Without accountability, there is no task.”
  • Effective teachers set criteria for their tasks and then hold students accountable for reaching those criteria.
  • Group alerting – teacher asks a questions, but waiting to decide who to call on – everyone is now alert and paying attention
challenge and variety
Challenge and Variety
  • Students need challenge, but they also need success -80%
  • Lessons must have variety
Effective teachers believe that ALL of their students are capable of success and communicate that belief to their pupils.
motivation and preventive discipline
Motivation and Preventive Discipline
  • Preventative discipline is good teaching and involves:
  • Belief in the worth of each student
  • A warm, supportive, well-organized environment
  • Teacher modeling of mature behavior and appropriate ways to solve problems
motivation and preventive discipline cont
Motivation and Preventive Discipline (Cont.)
  • Well-planned, appropriate learning and assessment experiences
  • Helping students learn self-direction and responsibility for their own behavior.
acceptable disciplinary practices
Acceptable Disciplinary Practices
  • Waiting aggressively
  • Rewards – intrinsic or extrinsic
  • Contingency contracting – should be clear, fair, honest, positive, and systematic
  • Contingent activities
  • Social reinforcement and praise
  • Tokens or points
acceptable disciplinary practices cont
Acceptable Disciplinary Practices (Cont.)
  • Punishment
    • Allow an undesirable act to continue (or insist it continues) until the student is clearly bored with it.
    • Always accompany punishment with a suggestion of something positive
    • End the punishment with the student’s decision to perform the desired behavior
    • Reward the positive behavior or the student will revert back to the bad behavior to get your attention
acceptable disciplinary practices cont31
Acceptable Disciplinary Practices (Cont.)
  • The social contract – logical consequences
  • Individual conferences
  • Group discussions
  • Loss of privileges
  • Time-out
  • Video recorders
  • Cooperation between home and school
  • Administrative assistance
    • Is it worth going to the office? Meet with principal ahead of time
    • Know the student – do they WANT to go to the office
    • Send a note about what he/she did
    • See the administrator as soon as you can
    • Do NOT send more than one student at a time
    • If student returns, calmly admit and ignore any face-saving behaviors he/she displays
  • Mediation
  • Handling explosive or violent situations
    • Prevention is key-
      • Be a hard target
      • Don’t let misbehavior get out of hand
      • Do NOT lose your temper
      • Be decisive, act quickly, and disarm the situation
      • Do not let punishment be excessive – WWI
      • Calm the class
explosive situation
Explosive situation
  • In case of robbery or hostage attempt, do not resist. Do as you are told. Do not resist
  • In case of rape attempt – keep the intruder talking as long as possible. Negotiate without pleading.
  • Mentally make a record of the attacker’s description
  • Get help
  • Do not touch anything the intruder has touched.
unacceptable practices
Unacceptable practices
  • Coercion
  • Ridicule
  • Forced apologies
  • Detention without a specified purpose
  • Imposition of schoolwork or homework for punitive purposes
unacceptable practices cont
Unacceptable practices (Cont.)
  • Punishment instigated on the spot, including grades
  • Group punishment for misbehavior by one or a few
  • Corporal punishment – that includes exercise as punishment and may be against state law
new teachers should
New Teachers should:
  • Learn school policies and procedures thoroughly
  • Be an example the students can emulate
  • Be a teacher, not a pal, to students
  • Plan and organize
new teachers should cont
New Teachers should: (Cont.)

5. Be flexible but consistent in carrying out plans

6. Respect and appreciate students as individuals

7. Let the students know from the start what the payoff will be for working ahrd in class.