History of the Projector By: Alex Armel Hr. 2
What is a projector? Dictionary.com says a projector is a machine for projecting an image onto a screen or other surface.
What type of projectors are there? There are four different types of projectors there is LED, LCD, CRT, and DLP.
This is an LCD projector The Different types This is the DLP This is the CRT projector
LED projectors • LED-based ultra portable projectors with over 1000 lumens of light output could come to market in 2009. • The LED projectors are very small and ultra portable. • They are able to have cell phones, and iPods plugged into them.
LCD LCD (liquid crystal display) projectors work by passing a very strong beam of light through a transparent LCD chip, that has the video playing on it. Advantages Some advantages to LCD projectors is that they are very compact because the LCD chip is so small. Another thing is that they have high contrast and brightness capability and they have a very low power consumption.
CRT The CRT (cathode ray tube) use three small Cathode ray tubes(one for each primary color) and those are combined with a light magnifying lens they can project a image onto a screen in a dark room. With the right processing circuitry tube size and lens combination they can produce very high resolution images.
DLP The DLP (digital light processing) projector work kind of like the LCD projector because the image is displayed in a chip but the DLP chip is referred to a DMD(digital micromirror device) every pixel on a DMD chip is a mirror. The micromirrors on the chip tilt very fast as the image changes. This produces a grayscale foundation for the image. Then as light passes through a high speed color wheel and is reflected off of the micromirrors on the DLP chip as as they very quickly tilt away from or towards the light. Then those two things combined they produce a picture. Lastly the light bounces of of the micromirrors and is sent through the lens onto a screen.
Different manufacturers of projectors 3M, Aiptek, Acer, BenQ Canon, Casio, Dell, Dream Vision, Epson, Hitachi, JVC, LG, McIntosh, Mitsubishi, NEC, Panasonic, Samsung, Sanyo, Sharp, Sony, Toshiba, View Sonic, Yamaha, Optima, Vivitek,
History 1832 Joseph Plateau and sons introduce the Phenakistoscope. Pictures on one disc viewed through slots in the other, appeared to move when the two were spun and viewed in a mirror.1834 The Zoetrope was introduced by William George Horner. The Zoetrope used the same principle as Plateau's Phenakistoscope but instead of discs the pictures and slots are combined in a rotating drum. Zoetrope's were widely sold after 1867.1839 Henry Fox Talbot makes an important advancement in photograph production with the introduction of negatives on paper - as opposed to glass. Also around this time it became possible to print photographic images on glass slides which could be projected using magic lanterns. 1877 Emile Reynaud introduces the Praxinoscope. Similar in design to Horner's Zoetrope, the illusion of movement produced by the Praxinoscope was viewed on mirrors in the centre of the drum rather than through slots on the outside. 1878 Eadweard Muybridge achieves success after five years of trying to capture movement. Muybridge was asked, in 1873, by the ex-governor of California - Leland Stanford to settle a bet as to whether horses hooves left the ground when they galloped. He did this by setting up a bank of twelve cameras with trip-wires connected to their shutters, each camera took a picture when the horse tripped its wire. Muybridge developed a projector to present his finding. He adapted Horner's Zoetrope to produce his Zoopraxinoscope. 1882 Etienne Jules Marey, inspired by Muybridge's animal locomotion studies, begins his own experiments to study the flight of birds and other rapid animal movements . The result was a photographic gun which exposed 12 images on the edge of a circular plate. 1882 Emile Reynaud expands on his praxinoscope and using mirrors and a lantern is about to project moving drawings onto a screen.
History continued 1888 Etienne Marey builds a box type moving picture camera which uses an intermittent mechanism and strips of paper film. 1888 Thomas A. Edison, inventor of the electric light bulb and the phonograph decides to design machines for making and showing moving pictures. With his assistant W.K.L Dickson (who did most of the work), Edison began experimenting with adapting the phonograph and tried in vain to make rows of tiny photographs on similar cylinders. 1889 Edison travels to Paris and views Marey's camera which uses flexible film. Dickson then acquires some Eastman Kodak film stock and begins work on a new type of machine. 1891 By 1891, Edison and Dickson have their Kinetograph camera and Kinetoscope viewing box ready for patenting and demonstration. Using Eastman film cut into inch wide strips, Dickson punched four holes in either side of each frame allowing toothed gears to pull the film through the camera. 1892 Using his projecting Praxinoscope, Reynaud holds the first public exhibitions of motion pictures. Reynaud's device was successful, using long strips of hand-painted frames, but the effect was jerky and slow. 1893 Edison and Dickson build a studio on the grounds of Edison's laboratories in New Jersey, to produce films for their kinetoscope. The Black Maria was ready for film production at the end of January. 1895 The Lathams too had succeeded in creating a camera and a projector and on April 21st 1895 they showed one film to reporters. In May they opened a small storefront theatre. Their projector received only a small amount of attention as the image projected was very dim. The Lathams did however contribute greatly to motion picture history. Their projectors employed a system which looped the film making it less susceptible to breaks and tears. The Latham Loop as it was dubbed later is still in use in modern motion picture projectors. 1896 Early in 1896, Herman Casler and W.K.L Dickson had developed their camera to go with Casler's Mutoscope. However the market for peepshow devices was in decine and they decided to concentrate on producing a projection system. The camera and projector they produced were unusual as they used 70mm film which gave very clear images. 1896 The Lumière brothers sent a representative from their company to London and started a successful run of Cinématographe films. 1897 By 1897 the American Mutoscope Company become the most popular film company in America - both projecting films and with the peephole Mutoscope which was considered more reliable than the kinetoscope.
More history 1899 The American Mutoscope Company changes its name to the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company to include its projection and peepshow devices. 1903 British film maker George Smith makes Mary Janes Mishap which was praised for its sophisticated use of editing. The film uses medium close-ups to draw the viewers attention to the scene, juxtaposed with wide establishing shots. The film also contains a pair of wipes which signal a scene change.1903 The American Mutoscope and Biograph Company begin making films in the 35mm format rather that the 70mm which boosted their sales. The company went on to employ one of the most important silent film directors - D.W Griffith in 1908.
LCD Projector history • In 1968 Gene Dolgoff came up with the idea of the LCD projector to improve the CRT projector. • In 1984 he made a liquid crystal display projector • In 1988 he started comparing it to projectavison INC. • They where released to Panasonic and Samsung
recourses • http://www.ivojo.co.uk/projector-guide.htm • http://hometheater.about.com/cs/television/a/aavprojectora_3.htm • http://www.avreview.co.uk/news/article/mps/uan/406 • http://www.projectorcentral.com/mfg.cfm