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Introduction to constructive graphics Basic ideas - Coordinate systems - Graphics viewing pipeline “The art of 3D graphics is the art of fooling the brain into thinking that it sees a 3D object painted on a flat screen.” Coordinate systems in 3D computer graphics Left and Right handed

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introduction to constructive graphics

Introduction to constructive graphics

Basic ideas

- Coordinate systems

- Graphics viewing pipeline

slide2
“The art of 3D graphics is the art of fooling the brain into thinking that it sees a 3D object painted on a flat screen.”
coordinate systems in 3d computer graphics
Coordinate systems in 3D computer graphics
  • Left and Right handed
  • Local
  • 3D World
  • 3D Viewport
  • Camera
3 dimensional coordinate systems
3-Dimensional coordinate systems

left handed right handed

Z axis goes "into" the page Z axis goes "out" of the page

local
Local
  • preferred system for construction of object parts
  • 3D Cartesian system
  • Object vertices centred about the local origin

Y

Z

X

3d world

Y

Y

Z

X

Z

X

3D World
  • 3D Cartesian coordinate system
  • arbitrary centre, handedness and orientation
  • used in the construction stage

Y

Z

X

3d viewport
3D Viewport
  • similar to a 3D word coordinates
  • uses normalised 3D coordinates
  • used if device independence is important
camera coordinate system
Camera coordinate system
  • used to define the view onto the 3D world that the user will see on the screen
  • centre (0,0,0) is located at the Imaginary User’s eye
  • axes oriented such that
    • one indicates the direction in which the User looks;
    • the second indicates roughly the “up” direction
    • the third indicates the handedness
slide11

U

U

Y

N

N

Z

X

V

V

2d window

U

Y

N

Z

X

V

2D Window
  • 2D system related to screen coordinates
2d viewport
2D Viewport
  • similar to 2D Window system
  • uses normalised 2D coordinates
  • If 3D Viewport is used, the Camera will first generate 2D Viewport, which will be then converted to 2D window.
graphics viewing pipeline
Graphics viewing pipeline

Graphics viewing pipeline describes a sequence of graphics operations needed to display a 3D object on a graphics device.

viewpoint specification
Viewpoint specification

Viewpoint

specification

3D world

Y

Z

coordinates

X

viewing volume specification
Viewing volume specification

Viewing

volume

specification

1

3D

(

normalised)

1

Coordinates)

Y

Z

0

X

1

viewing projection
Viewing projection

Projection

onto a

1

viewing

surface

2D

Y

(

normalised)

Coordinates)

0

X

1

display
Display

X

0

Display

Y

2D

coordinates

realistic features
Realistic features

Realism

3D / 2D

coordinates