fast wood plantations economic concessions and local livelihoods in cambodia l.
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Fast-wood Plantations, Economic Concessions and Local Livelihoods in Cambodia. Field Investigations in Koh Kong, Kampong Speu, Pursat, Kampong Chhnang, Mondolkiri, Prey Veng and Svay Rieng Provinces. Environment Forum Core Team. Overview over case studies.

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fast wood plantations economic concessions and local livelihoods in cambodia

Fast-wood Plantations,Economic Concessions and Local Livelihoods in Cambodia

Field Investigations in Koh Kong,

Kampong Speu, Pursat, Kampong Chhnang, Mondolkiri, Prey Veng and Svay Rieng Provinces

Environment Forum Core Team

overview over case studies
Overview over case studies

Fast wood plantations and local livelihoods

key findings from selected case studies pheapimex
Key findings from selected case studies: Pheapimex
  • Concessionaire
  • two continuous concessions totaling 315,028 ha
  • eucalyptus plantation and plans for pulp and paper processing plant
  • clearing of concession area commenced in 2000 without consultations, EIA or SIA
  • Community & Environment
  • over 100,000 people affected
  • decidious and pine forests, wood and shrub land, agricultural land
  • adjacent to two protected areas
  • livelihood activities: wet-season rice, fishing and NTFP collection
  • Impact of concession on local livelihoods
  • 88 percent of interviewees were not happy with concession
  • main threats: resettlement and loss of forest for NTFP collection
  • concession boundaries unclear
  • company failed to provide employment to local villagers

Fast wood plantations and local livelihoods

key findings from selected case studies wuzhishan
Key findings from selected case studies: Wuzhishan
  • Concessionaire
  • 199,999 ha in principle and 10,000 ha approved for testing
  • pine trees and plans for timber and resin processing factory
  • clearing of grassland and forest areas commenced in 2004 without consultations, EIA or SIA
  • over 16,000 ha planted (07/05)
  • Community & Environment
  • Phnong and Khmer communities in 3 districts are affected
  • rolling grassy hills with mixed-decidious dry forest in valleys
  • bordering or overlapping with Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area
  • livelihood activities: shifting cultivation, animal husbandry, fishing, NTFP collection
  • Impact of concession on local livelihoods
  • two thirds of interviewees reported impacts on agricultural activities
  • encroachment on areas of cultural and spiritual significance
  • main threats: loss of farmland and loss of forest for NTFP collection
  • only 21 percent of interviewed HH had members employed by company

Fast wood plantations and local livelihoods

key findings from selected case studies communities
Key findings from selected case studies: Communities
  • Tree planters
  • 77 percent of interviewees grew fast-growing trees
  • acacia, eucalyptus an melaleuca trees used as source for firewood and building material
  • majority had started tree planting on degraded land 1-5 years ago without any training
  • Community & Environment
  • large parts of Prey Veng and Svay Rieng province
  • flat low-lands with poor soil quality and prone to flood and drought
  • Natural forests cleared many years ago
  • livelihood activities: wet-season rice, animal husbandry, fishing, trade
  • Impact on local livelihoods
  • 50 percent of interviewees believed that fast-growing trees are bad for the soil quality
  • only 15 percent of HH not growing trees saw tree planting as a problem
  • villagers in control of land area, planted tree types and use of trees
  • example for fast-growing trees as valuable resource under scarcity

Fast wood plantations and local livelihoods

summary of findings
Summary of Findings
  • Present and future impacts on environment (forest destruction, decrease in wildlife, impact on water resources, soil degradation)
  • Social impacts

(loss of access to NTFP, loss of agricultural land, failing to provide jobs, threats and intimidations)

  • Violation of national legal standards

(exceeding the limit of 10,000 ha stipulated in 2001 Land Law, lack of EIA and SIA, disregard for protected areas)

  • Overall negative experience of communities (alienation from and destruction of the natural resources and land upon which communities depend on, with few new livelihood opportunities)

Fast wood plantations and local livelihoods

recommendations
Recommendations
  • Environmental and social impacts

(need to be adequately considered and addressed in the process of approving economic concessions)

  • Public access to information

(including maps, EIAs, investor evaluations, contracts and compliance status)

  • Land encroachment

(verification and demarcation of concession boundaries)

  • Employment
  • Accountability of the company
  • Legal standards

(compliance with 2001 Land Law, 1996 Law on Environmental Protection and relevant sub-decrees)

Fast wood plantations and local livelihoods