Catholic Social Teaching and Serving the Immigrant Church - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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    1. Catholic Social Teaching and Serving the Immigrant Church

    3. The Church Founded to continue Christs compassionate, unconditional love to humankind Also to challenge humanity Christian, remember thy dignity Pope St. Leo (4th Century)

    4. Nature of the Church To engage societiesculturesembrace themuse them to promote the Good News (Gospel) Various forms of teaching: scriptures, teaching of bishops, popes (magisterium) Lived witness of holy men and women--saints

    5. The Christian and Society Called to be engaged In the world but not of it Seeing Christ in every personcaring for him in the weak, needy, poor, marginalized Matthew 25: I was hungry and you fed me

    6. Catholicisms Efforts Cradle to Gravecare for the whole human person Gives rise to networks of social agencies: hospitals, orphanages, feeding centers, shelters Schoolsone of the most common forms of care

    7. Concern for the Alien and the Stranger Hearkens back to biblical timesHebrew Scriptures draws on hospitality ethic of Semitic cultureinsists on respect for the alien and the widow for you were once aliens Long tradition of welcoming the strangerproviding for their spiritual and material needs carries over into Christianity

    8. Catholic Social Teaching Articulated by many sourcesbut in recent times primarily by popes and bishops Address specific issues that rise up: labor, just wages, war, the economy, bioethics, public policies Some times meets a very negative reaction

    9. Key Principles of Catholic Social Teaching Dignity of the Human Person/Universal Human Rights Each human person created in image of Godcarries inherent dignity

    10. Social Nature of the Human Person Human beings are not isolated unitsbut only reach their full potential in relationship with others

    11. The Common Good The right of individuals to seek their own advantage has to be balanced against the common welfare of all

    12. Solidarity Concern for the welfare of others that goes beyond what strict justice requires

    13. The Option for the Poor Concern for the most vulnerable in society

    14. Subsidiarity Lower levels of society must do the work of social justice (parish, school, home)if they cannot, then higher levels of authority step in

    15. The Immigrant Church The Catholic Church in the United States has throughout its history has used Catholic social teaching to under gird its mission

    16. Provided a range of spiritual and social services to its own people and to others who are not Catholic: parishes, hospitals, child care, various forms of social provision and schools.

    17. Catholic Immigration Early US Catholicsmostly English and Irish After 1815large numbers of Irish and German speakers

    18. New comers found a mixed reception in Americaforeign identity and Catholic religion sometimes provoked strong reaction Anti-Catholicism/Nativism went hand in hand

    19. How did Church Respond? Ethnic parishes and ethnic schools

    20. Irish Come in successive waves during 19th century4.3 million (1820-1920) Form new parishesless inclined to start schoolsbut Catholic church accepts and ministers to them

    21. German Speakers Come from German-speaking areas of Europe (5.5 million, 1820-1920) Many of them had moneysettled in citiesMidwest (St. Louis, Cincinnati, Milwaukee: The German Triangle)

    22. Germans Set up ethnic parisheselaborate churches, organizational practices Set up schoolswhere German language spoke Language Preserves Faith Bi-lingual education a common feature of German parish schools

    23. Religious orders of women and men recruited to serve immigrant population In Milwaukee: School Sisters of Notre Dame, School Sisters of St. Francis, Racine Dominicans Each order ran schools for children of immigrants

    24. Second Wave of Immigration Stats: 1820-1920: 33.6 million 1865-1880: 10 million 1890-1914: 15 million

    25. Changing Demographics Mid-1880s: character of immigrants changes More Italians, Poles, Eastern Europeans

    26. Ethnic Parish After 1820 parish life changes thanks to influx of immigrants By 1850 there are 1.6 million Catholics in USsingle largest denomination 3.1 million by 1860

    27. Immigrants settle into American life and culture gradually Parish is place where ethnic identity persists and where transition to American Catholic identity is slowly evolved

    28. Church Response: The Ethnic Parish The parish or local church was the focal point of ministry to Catholic immigrants Early churchessmall enterprises formed by laity and clergythe role of lay trustees was significant

    29. Territorial versus Ethnic parishes Traditionally parishes were organized territoriallyCatholicism not congregational but territorial Everyone living in a parish boundary belonged to parish regardless of ethnicity

    30. Common Organizational Problem Often when new Catholic immigrant groups appeared they were directed toward local territorial churches or toward ethnic churches that seemed to fit E.g. Italians were sent to Irish parishes; Poles sent to German parishes This becomes uncomfortable

    31. Large influx of immigrants brought language problems: sermons, confessions, devotions (Mass was in Latin) Also different spiritual cultures: types of devotions, prayers, ritual celebrations, feast days, holidays

    32. Schools Germans and Poles strong for separate schools

    33. Clergy and Religious Foreign-born clergy came to ministerreligious and diocesan Congregations of women specialized in certain ethnic groups

    34. American Hierarchy Split develops between German and English speaking bishops over future of Church in America

    35. Americanizers Insist that the church should adapt to American culture: language, political customsstress national loyalty Optimistically believe that heavily Protestant Americans can be converted to Catholicism

    36. Conservatives/Germanizers Some in hierarchy insist that church should maintain its distance from American societytoo hostile to Catholic interests and values German-speaking bishops insist on retention of German language, parochial schools, and separate status

    37. Dispute Rages Settled by Rome in favor of conservatives Condemnation of Americanism in 1899 by Pope Leo XIII

    38. Vatican Concern for American Immigrants Concerns of leakage Heavy proselytization by evangelicalsMethodists and Baptists Falling away from religion altogether--indifference

    39. Special Vatican concern for Italian immigrants Apostolic Delegate visits dioceses to make sure that ethnic Catholics are being tended properly Allowing of ethnic churches

    40. Immigration Restriction Two major laws passed in 1920s 1921 1924 Both severely restrict the total number of people coming into USvirtually cutting off southern and eastern European immigrationtotally excluding Japanese Door is opened for Mexicans

    41. Mexicans Had been in US for many years Southwestern US experienced a surge of immigration from Mexico Southwest had been part of Mexicounder Spain and independent Mexico US conquered this area during Mexican-American War (1846-1848)

    42. Where did they settle Border states, New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, Southern California Areas where they had lived before conquest Continued as a presence in these areas

    43. Mexican Catholicism Revolutionary and political turmoil in Mexico 1910-1930ssends many Mexicans across the border to the US Heavy growth of Mexican Catholic population in border states Increasing number of parishes and catechetical programs sponsored by dioceses

    44. Mexican Parishes Earlier history of existing American mission parishessome fallen into disuse and ruin American administration of new western dioceses attempt to revive missions and create worship centers for Spanish-speaking Catholics

    45. For many years, without clergy, Mexican Catholics improvised their own religious expressions Baptisms, burials and marriages without clergy Popular devotion to Mary and to saints Confraternities a key element of sustaining religious life.

    46. About 80,000 people of Mexican heritage were incorporated into United States Migration back and forth across Mexican border took placeseasonal labor of migrant laborers Size not properly counted1916 religious census noted that 522,244 people belong to Spanish-speaking parishesmost of these were Mexican

    47. Spanish speakingcome in large numbers in 1920ssettle in southwestagricultural laborers Some repatriated in 1930s Church concern for Spanish speaking growsdioceses in southwest minister to themethnic parishes

    48. Bracero Program 1942to make up for labor shortages, US permits Mexican workers to enter the country legallywork in seasonal labor and return home. Program goes until 1964

    49. Ministry to Migrant Laborers Priests, nuns, seminarians undertake ministry to Spanish-speaking Catholics in fields Southwestern citiesespecially Los Angeles and San Antonio create specific ministries to Spanish speaking-ethnic parish model

    50. Church Response Continued care for Spanish speakingBishops Conference at urging of Bp. Robert Lucey forms a committee for Spanish Speaking Recruits priests (sometimes from Spain) to work with Spanish speaking in various dioceses

    51. Pope John XXIII calls for sharing of clergy with Latin America American priests go to various Latin American countriesdiocesan missions Lay groupsPapal Volunteers also send men and women to ministerlearn Spanish and cultural sensitivity

    52. 1960s Immigrants become ethnics Greater appreciation of cultural pluralism takes hold of American society in 1960sgreater desire of church to accommodate various ethnic groups, especially Spanish speaking, Pacific Islanders (Filipinos), and Asians (Vietnamese and Koreans) Formation of parishes

    53. Ethnic Representation in Hierarchy Archbishop Patricio FloresSan Antonioother Spanish speaking bishops follow Creation of seminary formation programs, Assumption Seminary, Mexican American Cultural Center, immersion programs for Hispanic ministry (Cuernavaca)

    54. Immigration Reform Hart-Cellar Act of 1965replaces quota system of 1920sfamilies welcomed Large influx of foreign nationals from a variety of countries Spanish speaking continue to comefrom Mexicobut also South, Central America and Caribbean nations

    55. Immigration Issues Growth in immigrant populations Steady growth of Hispanic population causes significant growth in US church Not only in southwest but in Midwest, South

    56. Conclusion Immigrant needs met by church primarily through ethnic parish Sacred space which contains elements of former culturelanguage, devotions, art, schedule Church struggled with appropriate levels of cultural sensitivityEnglish or Bilingualismmore of an issue after vernacular takes off in liturgy

    57. Resurgence of controversy surrounding immigration in 1990s Border control issues Fears of terrorism, crime, violence, disease Job loss Some nativism Church stakes out a position in favor of immigrant dignityappealing to papal teaching, respect for migrants and dislocated, human dignity of all.