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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. Heart Anatomy. General . Closed System Blood Remains in Blood Vessels & Heart Double System Four Chambers (Separation of Oxygenated & Deoxygenated Blood) Heart is Double Organ: Pulmonary Circuit (Heart  Lungs  Heart)

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general
General
  • Closed System
    • Blood Remains in Blood Vessels & Heart
  • Double System
    • Four Chambers (Separation of Oxygenated & Deoxygenated Blood)
    • Heart is Double Organ:
      • Pulmonary Circuit (Heart  Lungs  Heart)
      • Systemic Circuit (Heart Body Tissues  Heart)
heart size location
Heart – Size & Location
  • Size: Adult Clenched Fist
  • Position: Mediastinum, 2/3 to Left of Midline
  • Relationships to Other Organs:
    • Medial to Lungs
    • Superior to Diaphragm
    • Anterior to Esophagus, Descending Aorta
heart chambers
Heart - Chambers
  • Atria (2)
    • Superior Receiving Chambers (From Veins)
    • Auricles (ear-like flaps)
    • Right Atrium:
      • O2 Poor Blood From Venae Cavae & Coronary Sinus (Systemic Circ.)
    • Left Atrium:
      • O2 Rich Blood From Pulmonary Veins of Lungs
heart chambers continued
Heart – Chambers continued
  • Ventricles (2)
    • Inferior Pumping Chambers (to Arteries)
    • Receive from Atria
    • Right Ventricle:
      • O2 Poor Blood from Rt Atrium to Pulmonary Arteries (Pulmonary Circ.)
    • Left Ventricle:
      • O2 Rich Blood from Left Atrium to Aorta (Systemic Circ.)
heart valves
Heart - Valves
  • One-Way, Direct Blood Flow
  • Passive; blood pushes them closed
  • 2 Pairs:
    • Atrioventricular (Cuspid) Valves
      • Between Atria & Ventricles
        • Tricuspid (Right)
        • Bicuspid (left)
atrioventricular valves cont
Atrioventricular Valves cont.
  • AV Valves are anchored to structures in the ventricles:
    • Chordae Tendineae
      • Strong, Fibrous Strings
      • Prevent Cusp Eversion
    • Papillary Muscle
      • Conical Extensions of Myocardium in Ventricles
      • Contract & pull on chordae tendinae
heart valves1
Heart - Valves
  • Semilunar Valves
    • Between Ventricles & Arteries
    • Prevent blood from back flow into ventricles
      • Pulmonary Semilunar Valve (Right)
      • Aortic Semilunar Valve (Left)
heart wall
Heart - Wall
  • 3 Layers:
    • Endocardium (Inner)
      • Endothelium
      • Lines Chambers, Valves, Septa, Blood Vessels
    • Myocardium (Middle)
      • Thickest Layer (Esp. in Left Ventricle!)
      • Cardiac Muscle Tissue
      • Inherent Rhythmicity
      • Trabeculae Carnae – Ridges, Folds & Bridges of Ventricular Myocardium
heart wall continued
Heart – Wall continued
  • Epicardium (Outer)
    • Visceral Pericardium
    • Serous Membrane
    • Thin, Fibrous, Transparent
heart septa
Heart - Septa
  • Internal Walls
  • Separate Chambers
  • 2 Septa:
    • Interatrial Septum (Between the Atria)
    • Interventricular Septum (Between the Ventricles)
heart pericardial sac
Heart – Pericardial Sac
  • Parietal Pericardium
    • Encloses Heart & Bases of Great Vessels
    • Composed of :
      • Inner Serous Coat/Serous Pericardium
        • Parietal & Visceral Pericardium
        • Both Secrete Lubricating Pericardial Fluid into
        • Pericardial Cavity (Space Between Serous Layers)
heart pericardial sac continued
Heart – Pericardial Sac continued
  • Outer Fibrous Coat
    • Tough, Protective
    • Reinforces Serous Coat
ad