environment and medical ethics n.
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Environment and Medical Ethics

Environment and Medical Ethics

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Environment and Medical Ethics

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  1. Environment and Medical Ethics

  2. Keywords • Global Warming – the increase in the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere (thought to be caused by the greenhouse effect) • Natural Resources – naturally occurring materials, such as oil and fertile land, which can be used by humans • Conservation – protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment • Creation – the act of creating the universe, or the universe which has been created • Environment – the surroundings in which plants and animals live and on which they depend to live • Stewardship – looking after something so it can be passed on to the next generation • Artificial Insemination – injecting semen into the uterus by artificial means • Embryo – a fertilised eff in the first eight weeks after conception • Infertility – not being able to have children • In-vitro fertilisation (IVF) – the method of fertilising a human egg in a test tube • Surrogacy – an arrangement whereby a woman bears a child on behalf of another woman OR when an egg is donated and fertilised by the man through IVF and then implanted into the woman’s uterus • Organ Donation – giving organs to be used in transplant surgery

  3. Contents List • Global warming and solutions • Pollution and solutions • Using up the earth’s resources and solutions • Christian ideas on stewardship • Jewish ideas on stewardship • Infertility Treatment • Transplant Surgery

  4. Global Warming • The increase in the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere • Problems: • Rise in sea levels (melting ice-caps) • Rise in temperature • Disruption to wildlife habitats • Possible Causes • The Greenhouse Effect – human activity – burning of fossil fuels producing CO2 creating a barrier in the atmosphere, trapping heat and causing temp. to rise • Natural Climate Change – Earth’s climate always changing • Solar Activity – radiation from sun

  5. Global Warming - Possible Solutions • Alternative forms of energy (no carbon dioxide) • Electric and Hydrogen powered cars – no carbon emissions • Increased efficiency in manufacturing • Public Transport

  6. Pollution • Acid Rain – burning fossil fuels releases sulphuric and nitric acid, making rainwater in clouds acidic. Destroys buildings and forests. • Human Waste – sewage, refuse, litter. • Sewage can cause water pollution. • Refuse goes into landfill or incinerated. • Litter – increase in rats (carrying disease), chokes animals, causes car accidents and fires. • Eutrophication – fertilisers cause an excess of nitrates, nitrites and phosphates. Leads to an increase in aquatic plants, fish dying and poison entering water supplies. • Radioactive Pollution – waste from nuclear power stations is buried. Will take thousands, even millions of years to be safe. We don’t know if the containers will be able to contain it for this time. Can kill humans, cause cancer, genetic mutations?

  7. Solutions • Acid Rain – stop using fossil fuels • Human Waste – recycling, stop littering • Eutrophication – organic farming methods • Radioactive Pollution – Reprocess nuclear waste

  8. Scarcity of Natural Resources • Renewable Resources • Non-Renewable/Finite Resources

  9. Solutions • Alternative ways of making electricity • Electric powered cars • Recycling • Alternative lifestyles – organic food, riding bikes etc.

  10. Christian Stewardship • Genesis – Creation – God gave humans the right to rule over the world, control of all living things. BUT • God gave humans stewardship of the Earth and its resources • Old Testament – Humans have a responsibility to treat animals humanely and treat the land kindly by not growing crops every 50th year • Parable of the Talents – Jesus taught that God expects humans to pass on the next generation more than what they were given • Sermon on the Mount – Jesus taught that Christians have responsibility to ensure fair sharing of Earth’s resources • Judgement Day – part of judgement will be how well they have fulfilled duty of stewardship

  11. Jewish Stewardship • God made human beings as stewards of the earth • Genesis – God gave humans control of the earth. • In the Mitzvot (Jewish commandments) it says: • Every town must have an unused area around it • Never destroy useful things of the earth • Celebrate the festival of Tu B’Shevat (new year for trees) by planting trees in areas they are needed. • Don’t plant or harvest crops every 50 years.

  12. Infertility Treatments • In Vitro Fertilisation • Artificial Insemination by Husband • Artificial Insemination by Donor • Egg Donation • Embryo Donation • Surrogacy

  13. Christian Views on Infertility Treatments Catholic Views – NO! Other Christians – Yes to IVF and AIH One of purposes of Christian marriage is children – good to use technology to do this Egg and sperm from husband and wife – baby is their biological offspring Discarded embryos not foetuses – destruction can be justified by doctrine of double effect Major concerns about other methods but not officially banned – problems of who parents are and could cause problems for children All Christians encourage childless couples to adopt • Sanctity of Life • Fertilised eggs thrown away - life begins at conception – “thou shalt not kill” • Artificial insemination/surrogacy involves male masturbation – a sin as can’t result in procreation • Fertilisation takes place outside of sex act – God intended procreation to be part of sex act not separate.

  14. Jewish Views on Infertility Treatments All of Judaism – Yes to IVF and AIH Other Forms of Infertility Treatments MostOrthodox Jews – Do not allow AID – seen as a form of adultery. Surrogacy not allowed – whoever gives birth to the child is the mother and Jewishness passed on through mother Many Orthodox Jews – accept egg donation as long as egg donated by Jewish mother Most Reform Jews accept AID, egg donation and surrogacy – upbringing is what makes a child Jewish • Preservation of Judaism • God intends humans to use the benefits of technology as long as it is within the mitzvot • Discarded embryos not regarded as foetuses – destruction justified by double effect theory.

  15. ChristianViews on Transplant Surgery Most agree because Some Christians do not agree because Sanctity of life Usurping God’s role Does a surgeon save the life of the unknown patient or the patient they know who needs a transplant? Diverts resources from prevention or less expensive cures. • Immortality of the soul – body not needed after death. • Resurrection – St. Paul - Body will be transformed and resurrected body won’t need organs • “Love thy neighbour” • “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” Some only agree with donations from living donors because … Organs such as heart are intrinsic part of individual created by God Humans usurping the role of God Organs from the living aren’t vital so can be used to obey “love thy neighbour”

  16. Jewish Attitudes to Transplant Surgery Many allow transplants from a living donor as long as the donor is a close relative because: • They believe organs such as the heart are an intrinsic part of the individual who has been created by God. • Organs from non-Jews might affect someone’s Jewishness. • Transplanting organs from the dead to the living is trying to be God. • Organs cannot be paid for because exploiting people is banned in the Torah and Tenakh. • Organs which can be used from the living are not vital and so can be used to obey the Mitzvotto preserve life. Some Jewish people agree because Some disagree because They believe that transplanting organs is breaking the mitzvot on the sanctity of life Organs have been created by God for a specific individuals. Having transplanted organs may affects someone’s Jewishness. • They believe that God wants people to use medical technology to save lives • Organ donation obeys the mitzvot to love your neighbour • They would not accept paying for organs, because the Tenakh forbids exploiting the poor.