Yardscaping with fruit: apples, cherries, berries and moreby Rebecca Koetter
Our goal for this evening! Definition of what we’ll talk about. Is this something you really want to do? General requirements for growing edibles. Details of specific edible MN species. General pruning recommendations. General care of fruit trees/shrubs. Common pests for many of our favorites.
Topic for tonight Woody plants Fruit Species/cultivars Intentions
Why plant woody plants for fruit? Fresh, jam, jelly, pies, sauce, juice, juice concentrate, dried fruit, frozen fruit, wine To enjoy freshness and flavor of home-grown fruit To control pesticides used on food consumed To increase food security To save on grocery bills To grow varieties not available at the store To ensure time outdoors To lessen your carbon footprint To produce homegrown gifts To gain experience with different hobbies
Won't it take a lot of work? Photo: Gary Johnson
This is my favorite thing to do and I’m a professional hobbyist! I have other hobbiesANDI have a social life AND. It seemed like a good idea at the time…. Pear Plum Tart cherry Blueberry Kiwifruit Pies Dried fruit Freezing Apple Grape Jams Jellies Wine Elderberry Currant Gooseberry Juneberry Apricot Chart adapted from Jim Luby and Emily Hoover
Quick definitions: ‘Cultivars’ vs. variety (var.) Dioecious vs. monoecious Self incompatible- CANNOT fertilize themselves Self sterile Self infertile self unfruitful Self compatible- CAN fertilize themselves Self fertile Self fruitful
General requirements Certain locations! Spring planting except… At least 6-8 hours of sun pH- http://soiltest.cfans.umn.edu Well-drained soil Hardiness Pruning- improve circulation and light penetration Fruit set improved by cross fertilization Pollenizer within 100ft Japanese beetle, birds, rabbits, raccoons, deer, gummosis
Half-high blueberriesV. corymbosum x angustifolium Size: up to 5’ high x up to 5’ wide Pollination: self fertile…but Fruit: berry Color: blue Fruit on two to four year old canes Pruning objective: renewal Soil: well-drained, high OM, pH under 5.5 Ammonium sulfate, NOT aluminum sulfate Location: full sun Photo: Dave Hansen
Half-high blueberries *Northsky (1’ tall x 3’ wide) *Northblue (2’ x 4’) Northcountry (3’ x 5’) Chippewa (3’ x 5’) *St. Cloud (4’ x 4’) *Polaris (4’ x 5’) Superior (4-5’ x 4-5’) Northland (3’ x 3’)
Gooseberry (Ribes hirtellumandR. uva-crispa) Size: 2-5’ high Pollination: self fertile Fruit: berry with hairs Color: green to pink to red Ripen: July-August Fruit on one-, two-, and three-year-old wood Pruning objective: improve circulation Soil: well-drained, pH of 5.5 to 7…but Location: full sun best…but
Gooseberry Ribes hirtellum- American origin ‘Pixwell’- most common Ribes uva-crispa or grossularia – European origin ‘Welcome’ ‘Hinnomake’ Red ‘Jostaberry’
Currants (Ribes sativum and R. nigrum) Size: 2-5’ high Pollination: self fertile Fruit: berry Color: red, white or black Ripen: June to July Fruit on one-, two-, and three-year-old wood Pruning objective: improve circulation Soil: well drained, pH of 5.5 to 7…but Location: full sun best…but
Currants Red and white currant- Ribes sativum European black currant- Ribes nigrum RED- Red Lake The best cultivar for the Upper Midwest WHITE- White imperial BLACK- Consort, Titania, Ben Sarek 4x’s Vitamin C compared to oranges
Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) Size: up to 10’ tall Pollination: partially self-fertile Fruit: berry Color: dark purple Ripen: late summer Pruning objective: renewal Soil: ideal pH 5.5-6.5 Location: shade tolerant Problems?: very few! ‘Nova’, ‘Adams’, ‘York’
Serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.) Size: 4-20’ by 4-15’ Pollination: self compatible Fruit: berry-like pome Color: red to purple Ripen: July Size: pea-sized to 5/8” Pruning objective: improve light exposure Soil: variable, tolerates alkalinity Location: full sun to partial shade
Serviceberry or Juneberry (Amelanchier spp.) Cultivars Amelanchier alnifolia- Saskatoon serviceberry Honeywood Smokey Success Northline Parkwood Pembina Theissen Regent Amelanchier laevis- Allegheny serviceberry
Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) Size: 4-6’ Fruit: Pome Color: dark purple Ripen: late August- early October Soil: grows well in alkaline Location: sun Landscape value- persistent fruit ‘Autumn magic’, ’Nero’, ‘Viking’ Photo: D. Hanson
Black chokeberry ORAC: measurement of antioxidant strength of food items Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture in collaboration with Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, ARS, USDA, Little Rock, AR, November 2007
Mulberry (Morus spp.) Size: 18’ (up to 80’ in S. MN) by up to 50’ Wind pollinated Sex: Polygamo-dioecious Fruit: Multiple of drupes Color: reddish-black Ripen: Mid-summer Years until bearing: up to 10 Soil: pH adaptable, well-drained, deep loam Location: full sun Weeping mulberry
Cherry- shrub Nanking cherry (P. tomentosa) Sand cherry (P. pumila)
Nanking cherry (P. tomentosa) ‘Drilea’, ‘White’, ‘Orient’, Seedling Considered dwarf (5-7’) Can be trained to tree form 2-4 yr old stems most productive Self incompatible Soil: pH? Fruit- ½” diameter Bright red Perfect for jams, jellies, pies Paper clip!
Cherry- tree Tart cherries, not sweet! Size: 15’ by 15’ Pollination: self-fertile Fruit: stone Color: reds or purple Ripen: Late June through mid-July Pruning method: improve exposure Fruit 1 yr old terminal and spurs Years until bearing: 3-5 Soil: variable Fertility: bearing- min 8” growth Location: full sun- at least ½ day
Tart Cherry (Prunus cerasus) Evans Bali cherry Self-fertile 10-15’ x 10’ Fruit 1” Mesabi Sweeter than Meteor but smaller Self-fertile 10-14’ tall (semi-dwarf) Eating, baking, sauce Meteor Self-fertile 10-14’ tall (semi-dwarf) Baking, sauce Montmorency Not reliably hardy…but Northstar Small fruit (compared to other tarts) 7-10’ (natural dwarf) Photo: Warren Banks
Cherry plums (P. besseyi + others) Varieties Opata Red diamond Sapalata Sapa Compass- pollenizer Deep purple
Plum- general Size: medium fruit tree (15-20’) Pollination: self-incompatible (hybrids) or self-compatible (European) Fruit: stone Color: red to purple Ripen: mid to late summer Generally fruit on 1 yr old wood and spurs Pruning method: improve exposure Soil: not wet! Fertility: bearing- min 8” growth Location: full sun- at least ½ day
European plum (Prunus domestica ) ‘Dietz’ ‘Mount Royal’ ‘Stanley’
Hybrid plum (P. salicina x P. americana) ‘Alderman’ ‘La Crescent’ ‘Mt. Royal’ ‘Pembina’ ‘Pipestone’ ‘Red glow’ ‘S. Dakota’- good pollenizer ‘Superior’ - good pollenizer? ‘Toka’- good pollenizer ‘Underwood’ ‘Waneta’ ’Compass’ plum or cherry plum?
Hybrid apricot P. armeniaca x P. mandshurica Size: 15-20’ tall Flower: tender! Pollination: self-sterile or self-fertile Fruit: stone Color: yellow-orange Ripen: mid-summer Pruning method: improve exposure Produce fruit on 1 and spurs up to 3 yr old thinning Soil: deep, well-drained soils Location: full sun
Hybrid apricot P. armeniaca x P. mandshurica ‘Moongold’ Self-incompatible Plant with Sungold Eating ‘Sungold’ Self-incompatible Plant with Moongold Eating, jelly ‘Harcot’ Self-fertile ‘Scout’ Self-fertile Canning, jelly
Pear (Pyrus spp.) Not the grocery store cultivars! Size: 15-25’ Pollination: need cross fertilization Generally fruit on spurs that areseveral years old Pruning method: improve exposure Rootstocks Standard P. ussuriensis- FB tolerant Old home x Farmingdale- 70% size (semi)- FB tolerant Quince- found to be short-lived should be used on trial basis only Soil: pH 6.0-6.8 Location: Full sun Early bloomers!
Apple (Malus spp.) So many cultivars! Size: depending on rootstock ~30 ft- standard ~15 ft- semi-dwarf ~10 ft- dwarf Pollination: need cross fertilization Generally fruit on spurs that are at least 2 yrs or terminals Pruning method: improve exposure Years until bearing: 8-10 (standard), 3-5 (dwarf) Soil: Well-drained Location: Full sun Problems: Apple maggot, codling moth, apple scab
Rootstocks Precociousness Growth control Soil tolerance Insect/disease resistance Dwarfing Less space Bears fruit earlier Easier to manage- spraying No ladders necessary Problems Anchorage Suckering
4 possible choices for apple rootstock 1. seedling- 100% 2. M7- semi-dwarf 55-65% of standard 3. M26- semi-dwarf 40-50% of standard 4. Bud9- dwarf 30% of standard Big! suckers G.16 Needsupport!
Kiwifruit (Actinidia kolomikta) Size: 10’ tall by 3’ wide (twining) Pollination: Male needed for female fruit Fruit: Berry Color: green Ripen: August-September Size of grape Pruning method: Single trunk Soil: Well drained, pH 5.5-7.5 Location: Full sun to partial, protection Nutrition:
Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) ‘Arctic Beauty Kiwi’ Actinidia kolomikta Arctic beauty (male) and Red beauty (female) Aromatnaya Krupnopladnaya Sentayabraskaya ‘Arctic (Hardy) kiwi’ Actinidia arguta Issai
Grapes (Vitis spp.) Not fully hardy seedless Size: train up to 5-6’ tall Pollination: Self-fertile Fruit: Berry Color: White, blue, red, purple Ripen: Mid to late summer Only fruit on current season’s growth Pruning method: Remove most, leave 2-4 buds per each cane or spur Soil: Deep, well-drained, pH ~6.5? Location: Full sun- high temps to ripen Valiant grapes
Grapes (Vitis spp.) Wine ‘St. Croix’ ‘LaCresent’ (white) ‘Foch’ ‘Frontenac’ ‘St. Croix’ Wine-Table ‘Elvira’ ‘Edelweiss’ Juice ‘Beta’ Juice-Table ‘Valiant’ ‘Bluebell’ ‘Worden’ Valiant grapes Photo: Ben Johnson
General care of fruit trees/shrubs • Planting • Dig hole 2 to 3 times the spread of the roots • Measure length of bottom roots and top roots • DO NOT bury the graft union • Prune back excessively long or broken roots before planting. • Back fill soil into hole; tamp soil and water with bucket or hose to remove air pockets
General care of fruit trees/shrubs Watering
General care of fruit trees/shrubs Mulching!!!!
General care of fruit trees/shrubs Branch angles • Pruning • When is the best time? • What are your pruning goals?
Pruning • Modified central leader system • Open-center system
Pruning goals • Eliminate crossing, broken, diseased • Maintain uniform light throughout canopy • Select evenly spaced scaffold branches (3-4) per tier • RESOURCES: • Search “how to prune trees Forest Service” • Search “fruit trees: training and pruning deciduous trees”- University of California, Chuck Ingels
Small space = espalier Photo: Gary Johnson
Fruit thinning Overall: 1 apple per 40-50 leaves 1 fruit per spur Stages: 1st- ~June 20th or when fruit is ½” diameter 2nd- after June drop to 4-8” apart General care of fruit trees/shrubs
Cultural controls • Pruning • Provide water • Mulch! • Annually remove fallen fruit • Annually remove leaves • Protect from rodent damage
Common pests Japanese beetle Deer Rabbits Birds Gummosis Apple problems
Japanese beetle Photo: Jeff Hahn
Photo: Gary Johnson Photo: Mooter Deer, rabbits, birds, etc. Photo: Joe O’Brien