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An Integrated Psychological Science: Toward a Unified Evolutionary Psychology. Jennifer Johnson. Summary of Previous Chapters. Foundations of Evolutionary Psychology Evolution Before Darwin: Lamarck/Cuvier Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection Genes and Particulate Inheritance

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an integrated psychological science toward a unified evolutionary psychology

An Integrated Psychological Science:Toward a Unified Evolutionary Psychology

Jennifer Johnson

summary of previous chapters
Summary of Previous Chapters
  • Foundations of Evolutionary Psychology
    • Evolution Before Darwin: Lamarck/Cuvier
    • Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection
    • Genes and Particulate Inheritance
    • The Ethology Movement
    • Inclusive Fitness Revolution
    • Trivers’s Seminal Theories
      • Reciprocal altruism/parental investment/parent-offspring conflict
    • Sociobiology: synthesize – controversy
    • Psychology:
      • Freud/Psychology of Instincts/Rise of Behaviorism/Cultural Variability/Decline of Behaviorism/Cognitive Revolution
summary of previous chapters3
Summary of Previous Chapters
  • The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology
    • Creationism/Seeding Theory/Evolution
    • Products of Evolution
      • Adaptation, byproducts, random effects
    • Levels of Evolutionary Analysis
    • Evolved Psychological Mechanism: Information Processing Devices that exist in the form they do b/c they have solved specific problems of survival or reproduction recurrently over the long course of human evolutionary history
      • Nonarbitrary criteria
      • Problem Specific
      • Numerous and functional in nature
    • Research Methods
summary of previous chapters4
Summary of Previous Chapters
  • Lindsey: Problems of Survival
    • What survival is -
    • food acquisition and selection
    • food adaptations,
    • why humans drink alcohol
    • why morning sickness is thought to occur
    • fears and phobias
    • hunter-gather hypothesis
summary of previous chapters5
Summary of Previous Chapters
  • Laura: Women’s Long Term Mating Strategies
    • Evolved mate preferences for:
      • 1- Economic resources
      • 2- Financial prospects
      • 3- High social status
      • 4- Older men
      • Sustained Acquisition of Resources
    • Preferences depend on:
      • Personal Resources
      • Temporal Context
      • Menstrual Cycle
      • Women’s Mate Value
      • Geographical Location
summary of previous chapters6
Summary of Previous Chapters
  • Claire: Men’s long-term mating strategies
    • reproductive value and fertility
    • Men prefer women with low waist-to-hip ratios and other physical cues so they know who is reproductively healthy
    • Standards of beauty
    • Paternity uncertainty
summary of previous chapters7
Summary of Previous Chapters
  • Kristin: Short term sexual strategies
    • Men: Use strategies to pursue a LARGE NUMBER of sexual partners, more REPRODUCTIVE ADVANTAGES for short term sexual encounters
    • Women: more RISK involved in short term sexual strategies – most likely pursue them in exchange for PROTECTION OR GOOD GENES for their offspring
    • No one engages exclusively in STS, main thing is to pursue them only when you can MAXIMIZE BENEFITS, MINIMIZE COSTS
summary of previous chapters8
Summary of Previous Chapters
  • Aubrey: Problems of Parenting
    • Offspring? – Parental Care for all species? No
    • Paternity Uncertainty Hypothesis
    • Child Abuse/Homicide/Infanticide
    • Ability to convert Parental Care into Reproductive Success
    • Parental Effort vs. Mating Effort
    • Maternal care based on health of child
    • Care for sons vs. daughters
    • Oedipus Complex
summary of previous chapters9
Summary of Previous Chapters
  • Emily: Problems of Kinship
    • 1. The evolution of families is based on a cost-benefit model where the benefits of staying with the family are greater than the reproductive costs.
    • 2. Kinship Altruism - we are more likely to help those who share a greater percent of our genes and have the highest reproductive value.
    • 3. Siblings can be our closest friends and our greatest competitors for resources and parental affection and attention.
    • 4. Maternal grandparents will invest the most time and energy as they have a greater certainty of a genetic link to their grandchildren than paternal grandparents.
  •  It basically comes down to the theory of inclusive fitness - we will act in ways that ensure the survival of not only ourselves, but those who share our genes.
summary of previous chapters10
Summary of Previous Chapters
  • Jordan: Cooperative Alliances
    • Reciprocal altruism is beneficial overall to a group because the benefit another person receives usually outweighs the cost of another person, creating an overall net gain in benefits.
    • Friendship and how it is mostly beneficial but can be costly if the a friend is after the same things as you are
summary of previous chapters11
Summary of Previous Chapters
  • Lecia: Aggression and Warfare
    • Men Consistently more aggressive than women
    • Men consistently instigator of war
    • Benefits to war: more copulations due to increase in status, more resources
    • Women demean sexual competitors
    • Men diminish threats to own access of women
    • Men aggressive towards women b/c dissuade cheating
    • Discussed War
summary of previous chapters12
Summary of Previous Chapters
  • Jessica: Conflict Between the Sexes
    • both sexes have strategies they use to achieve certain goals. 
    • Seeing as the different sexes have different goals and strategies they come into conflict with one another and interfere with each others strategies.
    • Some on these conflicts are handled by force, sexual harassment, or properly communicating with one another
summary of previous chapters13
Summary of Previous Chapters
  • Nicole: Status, Prestige, and Social dominance
    • How status and dominance play out in social constructs.
    • Explain why dominance hierarchies and status-striving persist today through evolutionary theories.
    • Non-human examples were used to show how status and dominance are prevalent in the animal kingdom as well.
the scientific process
The Scientific Process

“Many sciences develop for a time as exercises in description and empirical generalization. Only later do they acquire reasoned connections within themselves and with other branches of knowledge. Many things were scientifically known of human anatomy and the motions of the planets before they were scientifically explained”

-George Williams, 1966

Main Point: DEVELOPMENT

Will this hold true for EP?

the martian
The Martian
  • Spying on psychologists: Arbitrary Division?
    • Cognitive
    • Social
    • Developmental
    • Personality
    • Cultural
    • Clinical
    • Forensic
meta theory
Meta-theory
  • EP is the only viable meta-theory powerful enough to integrate all these sub disciplines
    • Unified understanding of the mechanisms of the mind
  • Chapter 13
    • How EP can inform each discipline
    • Argument to dissolve disciplinary boundaries
how ep can inform cognitive psychology
How EP can inform Cognitive Psychology
  • Problem with Cognitive:
    • Assume general processing mechanism
      • What constitutes a successful adaptive solution differs from domain to domain
      • Number of possible unconstrained general behavior mechanisms approaches infinity, so organism has no way to determine the successful adaptive solutions
    • Content Free Mechanisms
    • Functional Agnosticism
      • View that info-processing mechanisms can be studied in ignorance of adaptive problems designed to solve
how ep can inform cognitive psychology18
How EP can inform Cognitive Psychology
  • Evolutionary Assumptions
    • 1) The human mind consists of a set of evolved information-processing mechanisms embedded in the human nervous systems
    • 2) These mechanisms are produced by natural selection
    • 3) Many are functionally specialized to produce behavior which solves particular adaptive problems
    • To be functionally specialized, must be richly structured in content-specific ways
how ep can inform cognitive psychology19
How EP can inform Cognitive Psychology
  • Marr and Tooby
    • Computational theories specify function of informational processing device
      • 1) Information processing devices are designed to solve problems
      • 2) They solve problems by virtue of their structure
      • 3) Hence to explain structure of a device need to know:
        • What problem it was designed to solve
        • Why it was designed to solve
      • Don’t provide how, only constrain search
how ep can inform cognitive psychology20
How EP can inform Cognitive Psychology
  • Problem Solving: Heuristics & Biases
    • Base Rate Fallacy
    • The Conjunction Fallacy
  • Tooby & Cosmides: Rather, study ecological rationalities
    • Utilize Statistic regularities to solve real adaptive problems
    • Goal being sought/materials at hand/context
      • Won’t assume cognitive mechanism riddled with problems
how ep can inform cognitive psychology21
How EP can inform Cognitive Psychology
  • Cosmides & Tooby: Frequentist Hypothesis
    • Some human reasoning mechanisms are designed to take as input frequency info and produce as output frequency info
    • Advantages
      • Preserve number of events
      • Update database
      • Construct new Reference Classes
    • Study that counters Base Rate Fallacy
how ep can inform cognitive psychology22
How EP can inform Cognitive Psychology
  • Male and Female Comparisons
    • Spatial Ability: Related to hunting
      • Women outperform men on spatial tasks involving location memory and object memory with certain objects
      • Counter?
    • Changes:
      • Several distinct abilities included within spatial
      • Studies of sex differences should examine nature of adaptive problem
      • Cognitive system is multimodular
how ep can inform social psychology
How EP can inform Social Psychology
  • Because Adaptive problems social, human mind should have psychological mechanisms dedicated to social solutions, especially relationships
  • Problem with Social: Phenomenon oriented
    • Correspondence bias
    • Social loafing effect
    • Self-handicapping
    • Self-serving bias
    • Confirmation bias
    • CAN’T EXPLAIN ORIGINS OF PHENOMENON
how ep can inform social psychology24
How EP can inform Social Psychology
  • Capitalizing on Evolutionary Theories about Social Phenomena
    • Inclusive Fitness theory
    • Sexual selection
    • Parental Investment
    • Theory of reciprocal altruism
    • Parent-offspring conflict
how ep can inform social psychology25
How EP can inform Social Psychology
  • Heuristic Value - Relationships
    • Events surrounding reproductive activity
      • Mating
      • Status, prestige, reputation
      • Kinship and family relations (inclusive fitness)
      • Friends/coalitional allies
    • Powerful Meta Theory
      • Why humans love Shakespeare, soap operas
        • Mating, divorce, pregnancy, deceit, manipulations, affairs
        • Social events that effect fate of our allies
    • Return of Group Selection
how ep can inform developmental psychology
How EP can informDevelopmental Psychology
  • Developmental theory is temporal
    • B/C few mechanisms arise at birth, development essential to understand psychological mechanisms
  • Missing insight:
    • humans face predictably different adaptive problems at various points in their lives
how ep can inform developmental psychology27
How EP can informDevelopmental Psychology
  • Theory of Mind Modules
    • Theory of mind: inferences about beliefs and desires of other individuals in child’s world
    • Helps solve adaptive problems
    • Add: Content Saturated Theories
how ep can inform developmental psychology28
How EP can informDevelopmental Psychology
  • Attachment and Life History Strategies
    • Species-Typical Menu: one selected on environmental experiences
    • Evolutionary Theory of Socialization
      • Fathers’ Presence or Absence
      • All theories of environmental influence rest on a foundation of evolved psychological mechanisms, whether or not acknowledged
      • Individual Difference
        • Reproductive physiology, psychological models of social world, overt behavior
        • Results from early experiential calibration are adaptively patterned
how ep can inform developmental psychology29
How EP can informDevelopmental Psychology
  • Attachment and Life-History Theory
  • Chrisholm & Belsky – integrate the two
    • Effort Allocation
      • Natural selection fashioned decision rules for changing allocation of effort to difference components
      • Trade-offs between current and future reproduction
      • Thus parents effect children: secure, avoidant, anxious/ambivalent
        • Attachment styles heritable or represent environment?
how ep can inform personality psychology
How EP can informPersonality Psychology
  • Hypothesized psychological features of human nature have provided much of the “core” around which these grand theories of personality have been constructed
  • But – So much variability
    • Typically assume individual variability is not heritable
    • Then, why are they linked to activities close to reproduction?
how ep can inform personality psychology31
How EP can informPersonality Psychology
  • Individual Differences can emerge from a variety of heritable and non-heritable sources
    • Alternative Niche Picking or Strategic Specialization
      • Selection favors mechanisms which cause individuals to seek niches with less competition (heritable)
    • Sulloway: Birth order
      • Individual differences are adaptively patterned, but they are not based on heritable individual differences (non-heritable)
how ep can inform personality psychology32
How EP can informPersonality Psychology
  • Adaptive Assessment of Heritable Qualities
    • Reactive Heritability:
      • Heritable individual differences provide input into the decision rule, thereby producing stable individual differences: assessment mechanisms
    • Body build: Meso-, ecto-, endomorphic
      • Aggression and cooperativeness
    • Mating Strategies: facial features
    • Adaptive individual differences based on assessment of heritable information
how ep can inform personality psychology33
How EP can informPersonality Psychology
  • Frequency-Dependent Adaptive Strategies
    • FD selection requires that payoff of each strategy decreases as its frequency increases, relative to other strategies in the population
    • Bluegill sunfish
    • Heritable Individual Differences can persist in population indefinitely through frequency-dependent selection, unlike directional selection
    • Mealey’s (1995) theory of psychopathy – survive in cooperative society
      • Heritable/exploit short-term sexual strategies
how ep can inform clinical psychology
How EP can informClinical Psychology
  • Present: implicitly appeal to intuitions (good and bad)
    • Fix: EP provide more rigorous set of explicit principles for identifying the presence of disorder
  • Dysfunction occurs when the mechanism is not performing as it was designed to perform in the contexts in which it was designed to function
how ep can inform clinical psychology35
How EP can informClinical Psychology
  • Why dysfunction?
    • Mechanism fails to activate
    • Mechanism becomes activated in contexts in which not designed to become activated
    • Mechanism fails to coordinate as it was designed to coordinate
  • How dysfunction?
    • Chance genetic variation
    • Mutation
    • Developmental insults
how ep can inform clinical psychology36
How EP can informClinical Psychology
  • Evolutionary Insights into Problems Erroneously Thought to be Dysfunctions
    • Discrepancy between ancestral and modern environments
    • Normal mistakes accompanying the “on average” functioning of a mechanism
    • Subjective Distress produced by the normal operation of functional mechanisms
    • Socially undesirable behavior produced by the normal operation of functional mechanisms
how ep can inform cultural psychology
How EP can informCultural Psychology
  • Problem: Dichotomy bx culture and biology
    • Fix: Culture rests on foundation of evolved psychological mechanism
  • Problem: Begin with Culture accounts for variability
    • Fix: Explain – don’t use “culture”
    • Evoked Culture
    • Transmitted Culture
how ep can inform cultural psychology38
How EP can informCultural Psychology
  • Evolution of Art, Fiction, Movies, Music
  • Display Hypothesis
    • Culture is an emergent phenomenon arising form sexual competition among vast numbers of individuals pursuing different mating strategies in different mating arenas
      • Men create and display art and music as strategy for broadcasting courtship.
how ep can inform cultural psychology39
How EP can informCultural Psychology
  • Display hypothesis
    • Accounts for:
      • Men more, b/c women narrowcasting
      • Age distribution of cultural displays
      • Why art, music, literature linked to social status
    • Can’t explain:
      • Content
      • Solitary enjoyment
how ep can inform cultural psychology40
How EP can informCultural Psychology
  • Pinker’s hypothesis:
    • Evolved mechanisms of the mind for other purposes that let people take pleasure in shapes and colors and sounds and jokes and stories and myths
  • Similar hypothesis:
    • Activate pleasurable sensations by triggering a host of evolved mechanisms
toward a unified psychology
Toward a Unified Psychology
  • Cognitive, social, developmental, personality, clinical, cultural + organizational, industrial, environmental
    • Dissolve borders b/c human can’t be neatly partitioned into discrete elements????
      • Or, b/c Recipe Knowledge????
  • Critical task: Identify key adaptive problems
    • It is not unreasonable to expect that the first scientists to explore these uncharted territories will come away with a great bounty
tuesday
Tuesday
  • Java Jay!!! 9:30 am
  • We will discuss:
    • Survey results
    • Critiques of EP
    • Other disciplines using EP – Philosophy
    • Possibilities for a future in EP
    • Personal Opinions on: Creationism/Evolution/ID