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World History in a Week: The Big Picture When did Humans arrive on the scene? Age of hominids? 5-7 million years Homo erectus? 2 million years Homo sapiens? 250,000 years Neanderthals? 140,000-50,000 y.a. Separate evolutionary line? First genocide?

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when did humans arrive on the scene
When did Humans arrive on the scene?
  • Age of hominids? 5-7 million years
  • Homo erectus? 2 million years
  • Homo sapiens? 250,000 years
  • Neanderthals? 140,000-50,000 y.a.
    • Separate evolutionary line? First genocide?
  • Cro-Magnon invasion of Europe? 40,000 y.a. (fully modern anatomy)

Australopithecus afarensis

Homo erectus

hunter gatherers
Hunter-Gatherers
  • Humanity’s only “economic” activity for at least 90% of our existence.
  • Low population densities (small groups of 40-60; 1 person/ mi2)
  • Largely egalitarian - every person performs essential functions.
great leap forward
Great Leap Forward

When? 50,000 years before present

Emergence of modern hunter-gatherer “toolbox”:

  • Fish hooks, Arrows, Bows, Needles, Engravers, Awls
  • Art
  • Jewelry (Beads at first)
  • Navigation/Boating? (Australia from New Guinea)

Proposed Causes:

  • Voice box development / language
  • Brain organization change

Lascaux Caves, France

Northern Australia

human expansion
Human Expansion

Urbanization and increased efficiency lead to population growth, which leads to need for more space.

slide7
Human Expansion “Out of Africa” Based on Archaeological and Fossil Evidence Including Homo erectusand Homo neanderthalensis
pleistocene overkill hypothesis
Pleistocene Overkill Hypothesis
  • Large, slow, or tame animals become extinct shortly after hunter-gatherer arrival in New World, Polynesia, Australia / New Guinea.
    • Flightless birds, giant cave bear, ground sloth.

Giant Extinct Moa, New Zealand

Skeleton of Giant Ground Sloth, Los Angeles

agricultural and industrial societies accelerate extinctions
Agricultural and Industrial Societies Accelerate Extinctions
  • Flightless birds, whales, otters
  • U.S. Passenger Pigeon

Mauritius, Indian Ocean

Dodo Bird discovered in 1598, extinct by 1681.

Dodo Bird, Mauritius, Indian Ocean

agricultural revolution
Agricultural Revolution

Domestication of Plants and Animals

  • Seed Agriculture - Fertile Crescent, western India, northern China, Ethiopia, southern Mexico (10,000 b.p.)

Rice, wheat, and corn account for more than 50% of world population's food calories and were among the first plants domesticated (along with millet, sorghum wheat, rye, barley).

slide12

Agricultural Revolution

Source: Goudie, Andrew. 2006. Human Impact on the Natural Environment.

agricultural revolution13
Agricultural Revolution

Domestication of Animals

  • Dog was probably first.
  • Early domesticated animals: cattle, oxen, pigs, sheep, goats, guinea pigs, llama
    • role in agricultural production and success
    • relationship to success of particular cultures: Indo-European Horsemen
slide14

Agricultural Revolution

Source: Goudie, Andrew. 2006. Human Impact on the Natural Environment.

agricultural revolution15
Agricultural Revolution

Primary effects:

  • Urbanization
  • Social Stratification
  • Occupational Specialization
  • Increased population densities

Teotihuacan

human expansion and ancient empires
Human Expansion and Ancient Empires

Urbanization and increased efficiency lead to population growth and increased density, which leads to need for more space.

Ancient Examples:

  • Aztecs, Maya
  • Chinese Warlords / Dynasties
  • Polynesians
  • Roman Empire
  • Muslim / Ottoman Empire

Human and environmental costs are inevitable.

the roman empire 27 b c to 476 c e
The Roman Empire, 27 B.C. to 476 C.E.

Economic basis: farming of wheat, olives, & grapes, mining, fishing, raiding, and tradingLasting influences: language, architecture, engineering, law, politics, values (duty, piety, justice, gravitas, brutality), spread of Christianity after 313 AD.

slide18

The Decline of the Roman Empire (400-500 AD)

Germanic mercenaries revolt and others invade Roman Empire.

Lasting Influences / Geographic Effects?

slide19

The “Middle Ages” or “Dark Ages”

  • Feudalism
  • Roman Catholic Christianity Dominant in Europe
  • The Spanish Inquisition (1478) Jews and Muslims Expelled/Tortured

The Crusades (1095 – 1272) Franks and Holy Roman Empire attempt to retake Jerusalem from Muslims.

chinese dynasties 1500 bc 1912 ce
Chinese Dynasties (1500 BC – 1912 CE)

Ming Dynasty - The Forbidden City (1420)

Economic basis: farming of wheat in north, rice in south, trade in silk

Lasting influences: language, architecture, food, Confucian values (honor, duty to family and state, education of bureaucrats), spread of Buddhism, invention of gunpowder, gun, and compass

niger congo bantu diffusion
Niger-Congo (Bantu) Diffusion
  • proto-Bantu peoples originated in Cameroon-Nigeria
  • They spread throughout southern Africa 1 – 1000 CE
  • Bantu peoples were agriculturalists who used metal tools
  • 19th Century Zulu Kingdom was part of final Bantu expansion

Economic basis: farming of bananas and, later, millet and sorghum

Lasting influences: Niger-Congo language, How Africa Became “Black”, spread of farming

islamic world circa a d 1500
Islamic World circa A.D. 1500

Lasting Influences / Geographic Effects?Slave trade, Trade Routes, Spread of Islam, Growth of Cities, Mathematics, Engineering (e.g., waterwheel)

islamic world circa a d 150024
Islamic World circa A.D. 1500

Lasting Influences / Geographic Effects?Slave trade, Trade Routes, Spread of Islam, Growth of Cities, Early Islam:Mathematics, Engineering (e.g., waterwheel)

Lasting Influences / Geographic Effects?

ottoman empire 1299 1923
Ottoman Empire (1299-1923)
  • One of the longest lasting empires in history
  • Islam, Jihad and state power intertwined in one man, the Sultan, as “protector of Islam”
  • State-run education, law, and judicial system

Lasting influences: Armenian Genocide (1915) one of first modern, systematic genocides, Islamic architecture, Turkic language, food

the mongol empire 1260
The Mongol Empire, 1260

Economic basis: shepherding goats & sheep, horse-based raiding and tradingLasting influences: religious tolerance, reestablished trade routes like Silk Road, horse-based warfare, diplomatic immunity, free trade, and paper currency

age of european discovery exploration and colonization
Age of European Discovery, Exploration, and Colonization

1492 - 1771:

  • Bartholomew Dias (Portugal), 1488 - rounds Cape of Good Hope
  • Columbus, 1492 (Spanish/Italian) - first of four voyages to “New World”
  • Vasco De Gama (Portugal), 1498 - reaches India
  • Magellan (Portugal), 1519 - First Circumnavigation
  • James Cook (England), 1768-1771 - voyages in Pacific / Polynesia; end of era of Discovery

The geographical knowledge acquired was crucial to the expansion of European political and economic power in the 16th Century.

slide28

The Spanish Empire, 1770

Economic basis: naval technology, resource extraction, religionLasting influences: language, law, Roman Catholicism, land distribution in Latin America

slide30

The British Empire, 1920

Lasting Influences / Geographic Effects?

industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution

1733, First Cotton Mill opens in England

1793, Eli Whitney invents cotton ‘gin

1800, steam engines become common (steamboats, locomotives)

1837, Morse and two Brits, independent of Morse ) invent telegraph

1877, Bell invents telephone

1878, Thomas Edison patents incandescent light bulb

1908, Henry Ford delivers first Model T

1913, Wright Brothers first flight

Lasting Influences / Geographic Effects?

global communications and transportation revolution
Global Communications and Transportation Revolution

Technology:

  • Containerization of Cargo (1950s)
  • Nuclear Energy (Fission)
  • Television (1950s)
  • Inexpensive International Air Transport (1960s - present)
  • Internet and earlier Arpanet (1960s)
  • Personal Computer (1980s)
  • Satellite Communications (1990s)

Lasting Influences / Geographic Effects?

today s technological revolution
Today’s Technological Revolution

What emerging technologies will change the world?

Which parts of the world stand poised to capitalize on them? :

  • Nanotechnology
  • Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Robotics and micro-robotics

Lasting Influences / Geographic Effects?

slide34

Human Population Growth

World Population Clock

slide35

Human Impact on the Planet, 2002

Red represents roads, power lines, major landscape change (e.g. agriculture), pipelines, and urbanized areas.Source: UNEP, 2002

globalization
Globalization

Nearly everything moves farther and more quickly today: Innovations, Diseases, People, Ideologies, Financial Crises, Information.

transnational corporations
Transnational Corporations
  • These companies conduct business in many countries, moving products and capital rapidly across national borders.