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    1. Telephony Troubleshooting in the Home ARRIS/SCTE

    2. July 2008 2

    3. PacketCable Definition PacketCable is a set of protocols and associated functional requirements developed to deliver Quality-of-Service (QoS) enhanced secure communications services using packetized data transmission technology to a consumers home over the cable television hybrid fiber coax (HFC) data network. July 2008 3

    4. PacketCable VoIP Network Components July 2008 4

    5. PacketCable VoIP Network Components The PacketCable architecture is based on many components and systems working together. Embedded Multimedia Terminal Adapter (E-MTA): Single device containing a DOCSIS cable modem and a telephony device that provides one or more line interfaces Cable Modem Termination System (CMTS): Provides connectivity between DOCSIS network and PacketCable devices; also performs call authorization enforcement, bandwidth allocation, and call trace functions Call Management Server (CMS): Provides call control and signaling services for the MTA, CMTS, and PSTN gateways; typically performs both Call Agent (handles call state) and media gateway controller (authorization) functions as well. July 2008 5

    6. PacketCable VoIP Network Components SYSLOG server: Optional server used to collect, store, and retrieve logging messages for devices on the network DHCP Server: Provides initial boot-up networking information such as the querying devices IP addresses, next-hop routers, server information, etc. DNS Server: Provides translation between the Domain name and the IP address of a device TFTP/HTTP server: Provides download capability for device configuration files July 2008 6

    7. PacketCable VoIP Network Components Announcement Controller (ANC): Initiates and manages all announcement services that are provided by the announcement player Announcement Player (ANP): Delivers the appropriate announcement(s) to the MTA under control of the announcement controller Key Distribution Center (KDC): Performs security key negotiations for MTA and Provisioning Server in the PacketCable network Record Keeping Server (RKS): Collection point for all PacketCable Event Messages; may also correlate Event Messages to create Call Detail Records for billing interfaces July 2008 7

    8. PacketCable VoIP Network Components Provisioning Server (OSS): Provides provisioning information for PacketCable devices via SNMPv3 Delivery Function (DF): Aggregation point for electronic surveillance; delivers reasonably available call-identifying information and call content based on the requirements of lawful authorization Media Gateway Controller (MGC): Provides bearer mediation between the PSTN and the PacketCable network Media Gateway (MG): Provides media (voice packets) connectivity between the PSTN and the PacketCable network Signaling Gateway (SG): Provides signaling mediation between the PSTN and the PacketCable network July 2008 8

    9. E-MTA Installation The following should be standard installation practices: Pre Installation inspection: Check for proper RF levels. Check for damage or condition of splitters and couplers in Coax Drop Check inside wiring for continuity at all jacks Check for shorts or foreign voltages (AC or DC) Check NID for proper wiring and ensure LEC connection is physically disconnected Post Installation validation Check for dial tone at all jacks Make test calls on all customer premise equipment Educate customer on equipment and features July 2008 9

    10. E-MTA Installation Customer Education Equipment Customers need to be educated to not unplug the EMTA or connect to a switched outlet otherwise phone service can be disrupted Customers need to understand that EMTA consumes very little standby power - similar to a night light. Educate customer to not place EMTA where liquids may be spilled into it Features Educate customer on how to use call features, provide reference literature/handbook Educate customer that certain features require compatible CPE: e.g. Call Waiting Deluxe, Caller ID, Message Waiting Indicator July 2008 10

    11. Troubleshooting Causes of Voice Problems HFC plant condition Typical inside wiring faults No dial tone Too much delay on calls Voice breaking up The caller hears voice distortion Echo Static on the line Calls will not go through Voice in only one direction July 2008 11

    12. TM508 Installation and Troubleshooting 12 December 7, 2011 HFC Plant Condition Downstream Signal Noise Ratio The SNR reported by the CM is a rough estimation of the signal to noise ratio at the F-connector. It is based on Modulation Error Ratio (MER). PHY performance beyond DOCSIS requirements is implementation dependent and some devices may be able to operate in presence of SNR values which are significantly lower than DOCSIS requirements. Thus, we provide following thresholds as values for troubleshooting but some devices may be able to be functional even in yellow or red SNR indications. For 256QAM we can roughly define: SNR>30 green 29<SNR<30 yellow SNR<29 red For 64QAM we can roughly define: SNR>23.5 green 21.5<SNR<23.5 yellow SNR<21.5 red

    13. TM508 Installation and Troubleshooting 13 December 7, 2011 RF Receive Power Level RF Receive level should have enough margin to allow for plant drift Range is -15dBmV to +15dBmV Recommended values: GREEN : -13dBmV to +13dBmV YELLOW: -14dBmV to -13dBmV or +13dBmV to +14dBmV RED : < -14dBmV or >+14dBmV

    14. TM508 Installation and Troubleshooting 14 December 7, 2011 Transmit Power Level Recommended values(dBmV):

    15. Typical Inside Wiring Faults July 2008 15

    16. Typical Inside Wiring Faults July 2008 16

    17. RJ31X Plug for Security Systems Used to connect security system control panel to home telephone wiring. Ensures control panel can disconnect phone users and has priority to seize the line to call the alarm monitoring station. July 2008 17

    18. Wiring a Security System with RJ31X July 2008 18

    19. Wiring a Security System with RJ31X July 2008 19

    20. EMTA RJ-14 Connection to Inside Wiring July 2008 20

    21. EMTA RJ-14 Connection to Inside Wiring July 2008 21

    22. Typical Inside Wiring Faults July 2008 22

    23. TM508 Installation and Troubleshooting 23 December 7, 2011 Dial Tone Issues - Potential Root Causes EMTA Provisioning Unsuccessful Line card or house wiring issue (Line Card Protection state) DNS Server lookup issues (CMS or FQDN) Call Signaling messaging protocol problems between EMTA and CMS Slow or delayed response from CMS ARP Issues DHCP Lease expiration / obtaining new IP address Insufficient Bandwidth on CMTS / Lack of US Grants Intermittent Packet loss and packet retransmits due to RF impairment or RF noise T4 timeout loss of RF connectivity

    24. Troubleshooting Dial Tone Issues Provisioning Verify that the E-MTA or NIU is registered with the CMTS Verify that the CMTS has connectivity to the VoIP Switch Verify the VoIP Switch has connectivity to the E-MTA or NIU via ping Verify that the E-MTA or NIU has the correct IP address for its call agent Verify that the subscriber is entered in the VoIP Switch database and is active July 2008 24

    25. Troubleshooting Dial Tone Issues DNS Look Up Failure If the CMS FQDN DNS queries are unsuccessful then the MTA will not be able to send messages to the CMS ARP Problems If the MTA does not receive a response to an ARP at the beginning of the call there is no mechanism in place to retry July 2008 25

    26. Troubleshooting Call Delay Users notice delay when the end-to-end delay exceeds 150ms. At this point, voice quality may be acceptable, but the delay is not. When this situation occurs, the processing capabilities of the E-MTA and/or MG are overwhelmed and not processing voice traffic efficiently Buffering reduces jitter in the network; however, it also adds delay as the traffic is adjusted to a fixed rate July 2008 26

    27. Troubleshooting Voice Breaking Up Congestion in the IP network causes packet loss As multiple packets are lost, the listener will hear jumps in the speakers voice As more packets are lost the distortion becomes worse and conversation is difficult July 2008 27

    28. Troubleshooting Echo What is echo? In a voice telephone call, an echo occurs when you hear your own voice repeated, somewhat attenuated and delayed An echo is the audible leak-through of your own voice into your own receive (return) path. The louder the echo, the more annoying it is. The longer the delay, the more annoying it is. July 2008 28

    29. Troubleshooting Echo Where does echo originate? 1. A signal is leaking from the transmit into the receive path Leaking in analog circuits only. Cross-talk electrically from one wire to another acoustically through the air from a loudspeaker to a microphone. Reflections in the hybrid part of the analogue side Telephone set, house wiring, dect Voice traffic in the digital part of the network is highly unlikely to leak 2. The original signal and the leaked signal arrive at the subscribers ear at different times due to difference in delay between the travel path of the original and reflected signal. July 2008 29

    30. Troubleshooting Echo The friends of echo Delay 25 milliseconds (ms) or less delay is inaudible; PSTN calls typically have less delay in the network, and therefore are unlikely to have echo issues VoIP networks typically have delays well above 25ms, so enough room for the echo to become annoying Over 400ms delay for a phone call is annoying even without echo Amplification/Attenuation Echo should be 55dB below original speech to not be considered annoying Amplification and attenuation occur at various places in an end-to-end call, and will be different for calls to and from different networks (fixed, cell, international, different providers etc) July 2008 30

    31. Troubleshooting Echo Avoiding echo Reflections are a result of impedance mismatches Line card templates set the impedances Phones should be approved for the country in which they are used Speaker phones can easily cause acoustic echo DECT phones are suspect as well Remember : Echo at subscriber A is likely to originate at the remote end of a call (subscriber B), therefore it may not originate in your part of the network, even though your subscriber is the one hearing the echo, not the remote subscriber. July 2008 31

    32. Troubleshooting Echo Echo in digital segments I really said the digital portion of the network does not cause echo but.. we resolved echo several times by applying changes in the digital portion.. The digital portion of the network can add delay, are amplification which makes Echo visible Removing this delay / amplification may remove the annoyance level of the echo Delay changes due to: Additional network elements (e.g.router) Changes in jitter buffers, packetization rates Amplification changes due to Different gain/loss settings in gateways / switches / trunks July 2008 32

    33. Troubleshooting Voice Distortion Caused by tandem encoding With this encoding (also called dual encodings or dual compressions), digital calls routed to a tandem (toll) office are converted to analog form for processing and then reconverted to digital form for further transmission Converting and reconverting more than twice damages the signal and causes voice distortion July 2008 33

    34. Troubleshooting Static May be caused by interference with a cordless telephone (2.4 GHz) Latency Jitter caused by congestion in the network July 2008 34

    35. Troubleshooting calls that will not go through Problems with the CMS - during busy times it cannot handle another call setup. PSTN-bound calls may bombard the MG and/or MGC to the point that they cannot handle any more calls. The SG may not be receiving proper messages from the PSTN. The call may not be set up properly through the PSTN. Congestion in the network The signaling information may be dropped by the network. July 2008 35

    36. Troubleshooting One Way Speech Path Causes for one-way audio are usually IP routing or HFC issues. Routing may not be enabled on the routers or there may be a problem with default gateways configured at end stations. Determining the direction of the one way speech path is useful in order to isolate DS and US specific issues. July 2008 36

    37. Troubleshooting EMTA Power Problems The E-MTA is plugged in, but the Power light is off. Check all power connections. Is the AC adapter plugged in firmly at both ends? If you plugged the AC adapter into a power strip, make sure the strip is switched on. Avoid using an outlet controlled by a wall switch, if possible. Finally, check the fuse or circuit breaker panel. July 2008 37

    38. Troubleshooting Internet Access Issues It may take up to 30 minutes to establish a connection the first time you power up the E-MTA. Some E-MTA have Standby that isolate PC from the Internet. Check the front panel lights: The Power and Online lights should be on. If the Online light is blinking, press the Standby button. The Link light should be either on or blinking. If the Power light blinks for more than 30 minutes, call your cable company for assistance. July 2008 38

    39. Troubleshooting Internet Access Issues (continued) Check your cable connections. Connectors should be finger-tight. The coax cable should not be pinched, kinked, or bent sharply. Any of these issues can cause a break or short in the cable (you may have to replace the cable). If you have one or more splitters between the E-MTA and CATV outlet, remove the splitters and connect the E-MTA directly to the outlet. July 2008 39

    40. Troubleshooting Internet Access Issues (Ethernet) If you are using a hub, is the hub turned on? Are you using the right type of Ethernet cable? (Straight cable for direct connection to a PC, cross-over cable for connection to a hub.) Press the Reset button on the back of the E-MTA. July 2008 40

    41. Troubleshooting Slow Internet Access If the Web site you are visiting is very popular, that site may be having trouble servicing all the requests. If other sites download quickly, wait for a few minutes and try again. Usage during peak hours may also affect the connection speed. If your E-MTA is connected to a LAN (Local Area Network), either directly or through a firewall, other communications on the LAN may slow down your connection. July 2008 41

    42. Troubleshooting EMTA Alarms Call Agent Loss of Communications Severity: Major, service-affecting Cause: One of the following conditions has occurred: The MTA did not receive a response from the Call Server for an NCS message. Re-establishing communications with the Call Server clears this alarm. The E-MTA received a NACK in response to the RSIP message that it sent on initial registration to the call agent, resulting in CallP functionality entering a permanent error state. Clearing the condition that caused the NACK clears this alarm. Impact: The NIU cannot register or initiate calls. Action: Check the status of the NIU and its network connection. July 2008 42

    43. Troubleshooting EMTA Alarms Power Supply Telemetry Severity: Major, service-affecting Cause: The NIU has lost AC power. The alarm includes one of the following battery status codes: AC Failthe NIU has detected an AC power failure. AC Fail Battery Lowthe NIU is operating from battery power, and has drawn down the battery to about 25 percent of its rated capacity. AC Fail Battery Replacethe NIU is operating from battery power, and the battery has deteriorated to about 75 percent of its off-the-shelf capacity and should be replaced. AC Fail Battery Low Replacethe NIU is operating from battery power, and has drawn down the battery to about 25 percent of its rated capacity. In addition, the battery has deteriorated to about 75 percent of its off-the-shelf capacity and should be replaced. July 2008 43

    44. Troubleshooting EMTA Alarms Power Supply Telemetry (continued) Impact: None at time of alarm. Depending on the condition of the battery and the nature of the power failure, the NIU may exhaust the battery before AC power is restored. Action: Depends on the scope of the power outage. July 2008 44

    45. Troubleshooting EMTA Alarms Voice Line Failure Severity: Major, service-affecting Cause: One of the following conditions has occurred: An In-Service line card has detected a Line Card Protection Fault condition (an overcurrent protection state). A Line Card Protection Fault occurs when the line card detects foreign voltage between tip and ring, or there is an excessive imbalance in loop current. An attempt was made to put an Out-of-Service line, in an overcurrent protection state, into service. July 2008 45

    46. Troubleshooting EMTA Alarms Voice Line Failure (continued) Impact: The affected voice line is disabled. Look for Voice Line Protection State Change logs to determine which line is in the fault condition. Action: Run the line card diagnostics on the NIU. If the NIU fails diagnostics, disconnect the house wiring from the NIU and proceed as follows: If the alarm clears, correct the faulty house wiring. If the alarm persists, replace the NIU. July 2008 46

    47. E-MTA Registration - Common Problems Power - Telephony modem is not receiving AC power. Verify power cord is plugged into an unswitched outlet. Verify power cord by measuring with voltmeter. Voltage should be 100-240V 50-60Hz. If unit is receiving power from outlet and power cord, replace with another unit. July 2008 47

    48. E-MTA Registration - Common Problems Downstream Scanning - Telephony modem is not able to lock onto a downstream signal. Verify cabling from house splitter to unit. Verify Downstream signal level at assigned frequency is within the telephony modem Rx range -15dBmV to +15dBmV. If no signal, verify the drop by measuring a CATV channel level for proper level at the CPE demarcation point. If CATV channel is at the proper level, contact head end to verify CMTS is transmitting. If CATV channel is not present, troubleshoot drop cable from the tap. If Downstream signal is at proper level, replace unit. July 2008 48

    49. E-MTA Registration - Common Problems Upstream Ranging E-MTA is not able to establish upstream communications with the CMTS. Verify cabling from house splitter to unit. Verify upstream path by sending signal back to head end and measure for proper level. Contact head end to verify CMTS RF level is set to proper level. If Upstream signal loss is at proper level, replace unit. July 2008 49

    50. E-MTA Registration - Common Problems DHCP E-MTA is not receiving a IP address for the data component from the DHCP server. Contact head end to verify DHCP server is functional and receiving address requests from unit. Head end should verify provisioning information. July 2008 50

    51. E-MTA Registration - Common Problems TFTP E-MTA is not able to download the configuration file for the data component from the TFTP server. Contact head end to verify TFTP server is functional and receiving configuration file requests from unit. Head end should verify provisioning information. July 2008 51

    52. E-MTA Registration - Common Problems Telephony DHCP E-MTA is not receiving an IP address for the MTA component from the Telephony DHCP server. Contact head end to verify Telephony DHCP server is functional and receiving address requests from unit Head end should verify provisioning information. July 2008 52

    53. E-MTA Registration - Common Problems Telephony TFTP E-MTA is not able to download the configuration file for the MTA component from the Telephony TFTP server. Contact head end to verify Telephony TFTP server is functional and receiving configuration file requests from unit. Head end should verify provisioning information. July 2008 53