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West Africa Network for Capacity Building in Integrated Water Resources Management. Health Impact Assessment “Key Tool”. Regional Training of Trainers Workshop National Water Resources Institute, Kaduna, Nigeria 6 – 10 December 2004. Emmanuel Ofoezie.

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slide1

West Africa Network for

Capacity Building in Integrated

Water Resources Management

Health Impact Assessment

“Key Tool”

Regional Training of Trainers Workshop

National Water Resources Institute, Kaduna, Nigeria

6 – 10 December 2004

Emmanuel Ofoezie

Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

sanitation health impact assessment
Sanitation Health Impact Assessment
  • What?
  • Why ?
  • When ?
  • How ?
  • By whom ?
  • Capacity building needs

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide3
WHAT ?
  • Sanitation and health impact assessment
  • Health impacts
  • Conditions stimulating negative impacts

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide4
WHAT ?
  • Sanitation and health impact assessment
  • A tool for identifying unexpected negative effects of development projects and formulating safeguards against the impacts
  • Health impacts
  • Conditions stimulating negative impacts

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide5
WHAT ?
  • Sanitation and health impact assessment
  • Health impacts
  • Communicable diseases
  • Non communicable diseases
  • Injuries
  • Social disorders
  • Conditions stimulating negative impacts

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide6
WHAT ?
  • Health impacts
  • Communicable diseases
  • Water borne e.g. Diarrhoea
  • Water washed e.g. Ascariasis
  • Water based e.g. Schistosomiasis, guinea worm
  • Water related e.g. Malaria, Onchocerciasis
  • Non communicable disease
  • Injury
  • Social disorders

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide7
WHAT ?
  • Health impacts
  • Communicable diseases
  • Non communicable diseases
  • Poisoning by mineral pollutants, toxins, pesticides residues, industrial effluents, etc.
  • Injuries
  • Social disorders

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide8
WHAT ?
  • Health impacts
  • Communicable diseases
  • Non communicable disease.
  • Injury
  • Drowning
  • Construction injuries
  • Communal violence
  • Social disorders

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide9
WHAT ?
  • Health impacts
  • Communicable diseases
  • Non communicable disease
  • Injury
  • Social disorders
  • Social disruption due to religious, tribal, economic reasons
  • Stress

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide10
WHAT ?
  • Sanitation and health impact assessment
  • Health impacts
  • Conditions stimulating negative impacts
  • Migration
  • Ecological changes
  • Water supply
  • Sanitation
  • Health support systems
  • Socio-economic status

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide11
WHAT ?
  • Conditions stimulating negative impacts
  • Migration
  • Movement of workforce, support staff, family members etc.
  • Movement of opportunists e.g. fishermen, farmers, traders, prostitutes, etc.

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide12
WHAT ?
  • Conditions stimulating negative impacts
  • Ecological changes
  • Water current
  • Surface area
  • Volume

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide13
WHAT ?
  • Conditions stimulating negative impacts
  • Water supply
  • Alternative water supply
  • Frequency and duration of supply
  • Quality and quantity of supply
  • Distance to source

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide14
WHAT ?
  • Conditions stimulating negative impacts
  • Sanitation
  • Nature, type and quantity of wastes
  • Availability and types of latrines
  • KAB to latrines and waste disposal

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide15
WHAT ?
  • Conditions stimulating negative impacts
  • Health support systems
  • Nature of health care facility
  • Distance of health care facility
  • Availability of expertise and essential drugs
  • Cost of health care provision

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide16
WHAT ?
  • Conditions stimulating negative impacts
  • Socio-economic status
  • Educational background
  • Economic status
  • Occupation
  • Religion
  • Others

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide17
WHY ?
  • HIA is sound economics
  • HIA helps identify and protect vulnerable groups
  • HIA is about risks and opportunities
  • HIA fits in a larger frame of best planning practice

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide18
WHY ?
  • HIA is sound economics
    • no transfer of hidden cost to the health sector
    • early design and operational interventions often more cost-effective than health sector interventions later
    • healthy communities are essential for successful and sustainable projects
  • HIA helps identify and protect vulnerable groups
  • HIA is about risks and opportunities
  • HIA fits in a larger frame of best planning practice

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide19
WHY ?
  • HIA is sound economics
  • HIA helps identify and protect vulnerable groups
    • development aims at bringing benefits to society at large, but it may overlook adverse impacts on vulnerable groups
    • no trade-off’s between the health status of different groups !
  • HIA is about risks and opportunities
  • HIA fits in a larger frame of best planning practice

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide20
WHY ?
  • HIA is sound economics
  • HIA helps identify and protect vulnerable groups
  • HIA is about risks and opportunities
    • impact assessment considers positive and negative impacts
    • seizing opportunities adds value and make economic sense
  • HIA fits in a larger frame of best planning practice

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide21
WHY ?
  • HIA is sound economics
  • HIA helps identify and protect vulnerable groups
  • HIA is about risks and opportunities
  • HIA fits in a larger frame of best planning practice
    • HIA links with Environmental Impact Assessment
    • EIA & HIA help determine best options
    • EIA & HIA help focus on involuntary risk exposure and the need for compensation

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide22
WHEN ?

Identification

Operation & Maintenance

Design

Pre-feasibility & TOR

Evaluation

Feasibility

Hand-over

Appraisal

Construction

Negotiation

THE PROJECT CYCLE:

Critical stages for HIA decision-making

Critical stages for inter-sectoral action

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide23
WHEN ?
  • Identification (Options for a development proposal)
  • Project identification
  • Pre-feasibility TOR
  • Screening of development projects
  • Initial HIA of each option using available information from project documents, reference materials, consultations, etc.
  • Scoping for significant issues

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide24
WHEN ?
  • Feasibility
  • Detailed HIA and report (often with EIA)
  • Relate health risks to hazards based on:
  • Vulnerable groups, communities, etc.
  • Dynamics of environmental factors
  • Existing protective health facilities
  • Detailed mitigating plans for each option

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide25
WHEN ?
  • Design (Technical and operational specifications)
  • Determine health problems of each option

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide26
WHEN ?
  • Appraisal
  • Independent quality control of recommendations of HIA
  • Issue appraisal report

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide27
WHEN ?
  • Negotiations:
  • Intersectoral discussions
  • Decision on development project
  • Allocation of funds
  • Construction
  • Development of physical Infrastructure

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide28
WHEN ?
  • Evaluation
  • Confirm implementation of recommended safeguards in HIA and Appraisal reports accepted by negotiations

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide29
WHEN ?
  • Operation and Maintenance (The outputs (energy, agricultural products etc.) that were the projects goal)
  • Determine efficacy of mitigating systems
  • Identify unexpected risks
  • Recommend mortifications to ineffective safeguards and new safeguards for the unexpected risks.

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide30

Policy

Procedure

Method

HOW ?

Tools

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide31
HOW ?
  • Policy must be right
  • Adequate and effective Institutional Arrangement
  • Legal framework must be specific and compelling
  • Resource allocation must be adequate and regular

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

the trend of dam construction in nigeria since 1920
The trend of dam construction in Nigeria since 1920

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide33
WHEN ?
  • Dam statistics and health in Nigeria
  • Total number of dams 323
  • No. investigated for snail hosts 47 (14.6%)
  • Number positive for snail hosts 20 (42.6%)
  • No. investigated for human infection 11(55%)
  • Number positive for human infection 10 (90.9)

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

organizational structure for river basin development authorities rbds in nigeria

The Authority

Teacher’s Board

Management

Establishment

Board

Establishment Committee

Tender’s Committee

Departments

Engineering

Training

Administration

Agriculture

Planning

Health & Environment

Organizational structure for river basin development authorities (RBDs) in Nigeria

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide35
EIA requirements in Nigeria

Description of the proposed activities

Description of potentially affected environment

Description of practical activities

Description of potential environmental impacts at local, national and global levels

Identification and description of measures to mitigate the environmental impacts

To control pollution in rivers, lakes and lagoons

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide36
HOW ?
  • Procedure is good management
  • saying what you will do
  • Screening (focusing on key disease issues)
  • Scoping (setting boundaries in time and space)
  • TOR (drawing up terms of reference for HIA)
  • Negotiations (ensuring resource allocations)
  • MoU (creating a framework for intersectoral action)

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide37
HOW ?
  • Procedure is good management
  • Getting it done
    • implementation (physical infrastructure for project and safeguards)
  • Proving that you have done it
    • appraisal (verify compliance with TOR)
    • evaluation (verify resources allocation and cost benefit analysis of project)

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

slide38
HOW ?
  • Method is technical
  • Ecological evaluation of
    • Community risk factors
    • Environmental risk factors
    • Institutional risk factors
  • Socio economic evaluations (evidence base is not limited to scientific information)

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

by whom
BY WHOM ?

Actors in the procedure

  • Project proponent is responsible for overall procedure to be carried out correctly and in a coordinated way
  • Ministry of Health is responsible for HIA TOR and for the appraisal process of the HIA report
  • Consultants are responsible for carrying out the HIA
  • Ministry of Finance approves resource allocations for health safeguards

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

capacity building needs
CAPACITY BUILDING NEEDS

To disseminate know-how of the HIA methods:

  • incorporation of the topic into relevant curricula for tertiary learning
  • in-service training for professionals involved in development planning and management, in public and private sector institutions and in NGOs

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

capacity building needs1
CAPACITY BUILDING NEEDS

To ensure optimal procedures:

  • Skills development in intersectoral decision-making and negotiation
  • Problem-based learning in real settings

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

capacity building needs2
CAPACITY BUILDING NEEDS

To create an enabling environment:

  • strengthening the capacity in policy formulation, review and harmonisation
  • product-oriented workshops on incorporating health into IWRM policies

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

recommendations
RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Department of Health and Environment
  • Identify project-specific impacts
  • Keep updated records of disease profile in each project
  • Implement and evaluate mitigating safeguards
  • Evolve practical and quantifiable local indicators for auditing each project

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004

more information
More information

The Water, Sanitation and Health Electronic Library

www.who.int/water_sanitation_health

The Report of the World Commission on Dams (WCD)

www.dams.org

The World Health Organization

Water, Sanitation and Health Programme (WSH)

Avenue Appia 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland

Water Supply, Sanitation Collaborative Councilww.wsscc.org

S13-HIA, Emmanuel Ofoezie 8 Dec. 2004