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Authoring an ontology of place semantics using volunteered geographic information Alistair Edwardes and Ross Purves Department of Geography University of Zurich Overview Motivation for considering place Why this is useful in the context of image retrieval

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authoring an ontology of place semantics using volunteered geographic information

Authoring an ontology of place semantics using volunteered geographic information

Alistair Edwardes and Ross Purves

Department of Geography

University of Zurich

overview
Overview
  • Motivation for considering place
  • Why this is useful in the context of image retrieval
  • Where can we find place descriptions
  • How might we build semantic resources from these
motivation
Motivation
  • GI bias towards spatial representations of Geography
    • BUT
      • Not all geographic information is spatial
motivation5
Motivation
  • GI bias towards spatial representations of Geography
    • BUT
      • Not all geographic information is spatial
      • Doesn’t reflect how people experience, remember and talk about geography
  • What else is there?
place
Place
  • Space-Place Continuum
    • Objective-Subjective
    • Universal-Personal
    • Machine-Human
where is place important
Where is place important?
  • Location-Based Services
    • Movement towards technologies closer to everyday, direct experience, activity based.

“The historical demarcation in psychological and behavioural geography between direct and indirect experience blurs when handheld devices are used as an adjunct to reality in the field.” (Longley, 2004)

  • Web 2.0
    • Social interaction, user generated information, personal memories
where is place important8
Where is place important?

[Baostar] documents place in a way that embodies neogeography, where human perspective and social interaction supercede latitude and longitude.

where is place important9
Where is place important?
  • Location-Based Services
    • Movement towards technologies closer to everyday, direct experience, activity based.

“The historical demarcation in psychological and behavioural geography between direct and indirect experience blurs when handheld devices are used as an adjunct to reality in the field.” (Longley, 2004)

  • Web 2.0
    • Social interaction, user generated information, personal memories
  • Geographic Information Retrieval
    • Vernacular geography, organising activities
  • Photographs

“GI theory articulates the idea of absolute Euclidean spaces quite well, but the socially-produced and continuously changing notion of place has to date proved elusive to digital description except, perhaps, through photography and film.” (Fisher and Unwin, 2006)

place and photographs
Place and photographs
  • Observer/Viewpoint
    • Different from universal perspective of maps
  • Information is perceptual
    • Closer to direct experience
    • Pre-cognitive
    • Many ways to interpret
  • Highly ephemeral
    • moment in time
problems
Problems
  • Many such moments in space and time
    • How do we sort through them?
    • Image Retrieval
      • How do we access a description of the contents of an image?
      • What do we describe about an image?
image retrieval approaches cbir

Smeulders et al, 2000

Image Retrieval Approaches (CBIR)
  • Content Based Image Retrieval
  • “Natural” for format
    • Use primitive features like colour, shape and texture
the semantic gap
The Semantic Gap

“The semantic gap is the lack of coincidence between the information that one can extract from the visual data and the interpretation that the same data have for a user in a given situation.” (Smeulders et al, 2000)

  • Concept based image retrieval
    • Define high-level semantic concepts
      • Defined in loosely structured word lists (LSCOM)
    • Detect using low-level feature vectors
image retrieval approaches tbir
Image Retrieval Approaches (TBIR)
  • Text-based Image Retrieval
    • Describe contents in text
  • How do you access this description?
  • What should be described?
how do you access a description
How do you access a description?
  • Manual annotate
    • Expensive and time consuming
      • Definitively won’t scale
      • Need to automate
    • Inconsistency amongst annotators (Markey, 1984)
      • Inter-annotator agreement (e.g. Ahn and Dabbish, 2004)
      • Controlled Vocabulary
        • Getty Images 12,000 keywords with 45,000 synonyms (Bjarnestam, 1998)
        • Specialist knowledge
tripod approach
Tripod Approach
  • Describe location instead
    • Spatial data
    • Geographic knowledge
    • Web resources
obligatory project slide
Obligatory Project Slide
  • European Commission Sixth Framework Programme Project
  • 3 years (started January 2007)
  • €3,150,000
  • Partners
    • University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
    • University of Zurich, Switzerland
    • Dublin City University, Ireland
    • Otto-Friedrich-Universität, Bamberg, Germany
    • Cardiff University, United Kingdom
    • Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom
    • Centrica, Italy
    • Geodan, The Netherlands
    • Fratelli Alinari Istituto Edizioni Artistiche, Italy
    • Tilde, Latvia
  • Focus on image retrieval by users of professional stock photo libraries
  • Focus on particularly geographic images
    • e.g. Natural landscapes
what should be described
What should be described?

Panofsky-Shatford facet matrix – Shatford (1986)

what should be described19

SpecificOf: [Da Vinci Chambord staircase]

What should be described?

GenericOf: Engineering

About: Innovation, technical brilliance, complexity

what should be described20
What should be described?
  • Advertising
    • Mystery
    • Isolation
    • Chocolate
dimensions of place
Dimensions of Place
  • Theoretical Dimensions of Place
    • Physical setting, activities, meanings Relph (1976)
    • location, material form, investment in meaning Gieryn (2000)
    • location (spatial distribution activities), locale (the setting), sense of place Agnew (1987)
  • Similar to Shatford
    • SpecificOf – Location/Identity
    • GenericOf – Setting
    • About – Sense of place, meanings, activities
organisation in tripod
Organisation in Tripod
  • Concept Ontology
    • GenericOf
      • Scene types
      • Elements
    • About
      • Sense of Place
        • Affective, Cognitive, Conative
      • Qualities and Activities
  • Toponym ontology
    • SpecificOf
      • Identity, location
how can we elicit place descriptions
How can we elicit place descriptions?
  • Inductively
    • Ask people
      • Adjective Check List
      • Category Norms / Basic Levels
        • e.g. Mountains, Parks, Beaches, Cities
        • Attributes, Activities, Parts
    • Pick terms from a dictionary and validate
    • Code unstructured domain knowledge
    • Data mine web resources
  • Deductively
    • Look at structured semantic resources
  • Use a combination of these approaches
empirical elicitation

Free description

Controlled vocabulary

Sort and describe

Empirical Elicitation
  • Online interactive experiments
  • Database of 150 landscape photographs from Switzerland, Germany, Holland, Italy, Portugal and the UK.
slide25

Overall ∩ Elements

landscape village valley countryside wall field top sunlight hills cliffs castle peak fortress narrow birch town plain land hillside lawn farm creek orchard harbour fall rocks fields flowers buildings ridge bushes woods track stone ruins meadows undergrowth dunes deciduous cross coast brush wooden weather walls villa monument lane city waterfall vineyard valleys tundra trail terraced temple sunrise station ship shelter rolling riverbank pylons peninsula pathway park outcrop munros loch lightly historical hilltop ground gardens foot flood dock cycle croft covered catwalk cargo canopy canal burned brook boulder bay arm angler altitude acre

Overall ∩ Qualities

mediterranean summer quiet winter hilly calm isolated rural steep open mediteranian cold hot blurry windy free spring remote lonely clean dangerous cool tranquil arid well rugged rough picturesque dark vista urban snowy sandy rotting northern medieval intervention home hike fertile end dusk back

Overall

wooded country surrounded scene mountainous low dense coastline

young world wonderland wintry waterside variation uniform two twilight tuscany tide three sunlit suburban structure streaming snowland sicily sedimented seaside seacoast savanna ruined route romantic rollign roadside riverside riverbed rising rigi region reach ranch prospect populated pond plateau photographed peeking pastures passage overgrown outback november mountaintops moor montains mist mediterran lonley lodge leafy lakeside junction heaven hanging gurgling greek france foreground following floor featureless falling dive development dawn countour copse cliif babbling area alice

Overall ∩ Activities

running rowing touring biking looking enjoying bycicle parking live estate

how can we elicit place descriptions27
How can we elicit place descriptions?
  • Inductively
    • Ask people
      • Adjective Check List
      • Category Norms / Basic Levels
        • e.g. Mountains, Parks, Beaches, Cities
        • Attributes, Activities, Parts
    • Pick terms from a dictionary and validate
    • Code unstructured domain knowledge
    • Data mine web resources
  • Deductively
    • Look at structured semantic resources
  • Use a combination of these approaches
volunteered resources

Gatliff Trust Hostel on Berneray: Picture taken from the beach on Berneray of the historic Gatliff Trust Hostel. Visited in the 1990s, shortly before the causeway linking Berneray to North Uist was built.

Volunteered Resources
validation of terms

www.geograph.org.uk

Word lists

(WordNet)

Examine frequency and co-occurrence of scene types and terms with respect to a database of image captions

Scene types

Validation of terms
how can we elicit place descriptions31
How can we elicit place descriptions?
  • Inductively
    • Ask people
      • Adjective Check List
      • Category Norms / Basic Levels
        • e.g. Mountains, Parks, Beaches, Cities
        • Attributes, Activities, Parts
    • Pick terms from a dictionary and validate
    • Code unstructured domain knowledge
    • Data mine web resources
  • Deductively
    • Look at structured semantic resources
  • Use a combination of these approaches
data mining
Data Mining
  • Analysed Nouns (those used >100 in captions)
    • Aim
      • Identify similar element concepts (equivalence relationships)
        • Analyse noun co-occurrence with the landscape adjectives of Craik
      • Identify related element concepts (associative relationships)
        • Analyse noun-noun co-occurrence
    • Methodology (vector space analysis)
      • Identify a list of nouns (inter-annotator agreement)
      • Form co-occurrence vectors for each noun with nouns or adjectives
      • Remove insignificant occurrences (tested with chi-squared p>0.01)
      • Filter out vectors with few occurrences (<3)
      • Analyse (cosine) similarity between idf-weighted co-occurrence vectors
      • Visualise using hierarchical clustering and multi-dimensional scaling
        • Throw out largest cluster (noise)
element similarities

Headland, outcrop, coastline,

knoll, shoreline, promontory,

outcrops, foreshore

Landforms

hill, bank, slopes, hillside,

slope, cliffs, banks, crag,

crags, incline, descent, fall,

ascent, coombe, gradient

Valley(s),

ravine, gorge

Land cover

land, forest, fields,

farmland, moor, moorland,

countryside, heathland,

grassland, downland

Gully, channel(s), cutting

ditch(es), holes, pool, ford

shaft

Areas, block, granite,

blocks, shed, boulder(s), expanse, slab(s), pieces

Element Similarities
related elements

Water

Bridge, river(s), water(s), bank, burn, stream(s), brook, footbridge, dam, ford, pool, flood, banks, drain, plain, weir, tributary, fish, source, waterfall, bed, meadow(s), levels, gorge, fen, aqueduct, sewage confluence, riverside, reservoir(s), pipe, sluice, salmon, pools, meanders, trout, floods, waterfalls, springs, anglers, channels, table, fishery, outflow, watercourse, wharfe, otter, dike, floodplain, watershed,

Built Environment

Church, tower, clock, nave, porch, font, aisle

House, hall, stone, wall, home, manor, brick, grounds, roof, walls, door, structure, floor, parts, window(s), period, glass, mansion, lady, storey, gable(s), architect, doorway, moat, material, façade, wing, doors, bricks, materials rubble, columns, foundations, keys, wings, village, entrance, castle, pub, cottages, inn, avenue

Nature

Trees, edge, wood, forest, woodland, plantation, forestry, oak, beech, inclosure, birch, pine, heathland, ponies, conifers, pines, plantations, holly, oaks, lawn, conifer, pony, spruce, sitka, larch, commoners

Transport

railway(s), line, station, train(s), branch, viaduct, cutting, embankment, rail(s), stations, trackbed, goods, passenger(s), terminus, mainline, gauge, platform(s), locomotive, overbridge, sidings, freight, diesel

view, farm, lane, hill, footpath, valley, farmland, bridleway, hedge, heath, hillside, horse, stile, walkers, copse, leaves, chalk, picnic, warren, cyclists, spinney, trails

Road, way, track, junction(s), route(s), section, access, crossing, course, traffic, direction, mile, pass, roundabout, motorway, camera, links, yards, bypass, carriageway, network, lights, pedestrian(s), loop, barrier, flyover

Related Elements
flickr

Nature

barn, bench, countryside, environment, farm, fence, field, flood, fog, grass, meadow, mist, moss, mud, parks, path, pine, rain, rural, storm, weather, wiese, wood, baum, fall, forest, leaf, leaves, tree(s), woodland, woods

butterfly, insect(s), insectes, landscape, landschaft, natur, nature, scenery, bloom, blossom, cherry, flora, flower, flowers, garden, gardens, orchid, plant, plants, rose, wildflowers

Weather

Sun, bluesky, cloud, clouds, dusk, horizon, sky, sunshine, himmel insel, meer, sonne, strand sonnenuntergang, wasser, wolken

Built environment

countycourthouse, county

courthouse, courthouses,

cityhall, capitolbuilding,

texascountycourthouses, texascourthouses, court,

building(s), architecture

Beaches

atlantic, beach, coast, ocean, pacific, pier, plage, playa, sand, sea, seagull, seaside, shore, surf, wave(s), water

alley, billboard, brick(s), castle, cathedral, centre, centreville, chimney, church, clock, county, door, entrance, façade, glass, houses, interior, metro, roof schloss, shop, sign(s), stairs, steps, store, streets, suburb, subway, tower(s), town, underground, ville, wall, window(s), wires

Aviation

aeroplane , aircraft, airline, airplane, airport, aviation, boeing, flughafen, flugzeug, plane, air, apache, flight, helicopter

Street Art

cityart, graffiti, graffitiart, graffitti, grafitti, graphiti, stencil, streetart, urbanart, paint, spray, stickers, street, wall(s), mural

city, cityscape, downtown, court, skyline, skyscraper, urban, capitalcity, innercity innerlondon, capitol

Flickr

Work with Christian Matyas

of Bamberg University

develop taxonomies
Develop Taxonomies

Actual

Nouns

Concept

categories

Taxonomy groups

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Place
    • Facets
    • Importance to geographical semantics
  • Eliciting place
  • Volunteer sources
    • Usefulness
    • Potential biases
  • Left open
    • Infrastructure
    • Concept detection
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • We would like to gratefully acknowledge contributors to Geograph British Isles, see http://www.geograph.org.uk/credits/2007-02-24, whose work is made available under the following Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 Licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/).
  • This research reported in this paper is part of the project TRIPOD supported by the European Commission under contract 045335.