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PRESENTATION ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT: BY BRIG (Dr) B.K. KHANNA, SENIOR SPECIALIST (LCD) NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY. PREVIEW. Disturbing Trends of Disasters and their Impact on India. Factors Responsible for Increasing Number of Disasters.

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slide1

PRESENTATION ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT: BYBRIG (Dr) B.K. KHANNA, SENIOR SPECIALIST (LCD) NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY

slide2

PREVIEW

  • Disturbing Trends of Disasters and their Impact on India.
  • Factors Responsible for Increasing Number of Disasters.
  • Lessons Learnt from Recent Disasters.
  • Disaster Management Cycle.
  • Hazard Vulnerability of India.
  • Disaster Management Act, 2005.
  • Charter and Vision of NDMA.
  • Organisation of NDMA.
  • National Disaster Response Force.
  • Role of Armed Forces in Disaster Management.
  • Conclusion.
slide3

DISTURBING TRENDS OF DISASTERS

AND

THEIR IMPACT ON INDIA

slide4

DISTRIBUTION OF NATURAL DISASTERS

ALASKA

CHINA

USA

JAPAN

INDONESIA

INDIA

AREA-WISE EVENTS (1975-2001)

slide5

IMPACT OF MITIGATION & PREPAREDNESS MEASURES

ALASKA

CHINA

USA

JAPAN

INDONESIA

INDIA

DISTRIBUTION OF PEOPLE AFFECTED BY DISASTER (1975-2001)

global economic losses due to disasters

PERIOD

GLOBAL ECONOMIC LOSSES DUE TO DISASTERS

Losses

in US $

Billion

1960’s 1970’s 1980’s 1990’s

Note :1. UN Declared the decade of 1990-1999 as International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction.

2. Losses 1995-1999- Developed World – 2.5% of GDP.

- Developing World – 13.4% of GDP.

*Source www.em-dat.net

major disasters in india 1990 2005
MAJOR DISASTERS IN INDIA : 1990 - 2005

1. If Average Annual Lives Lost are Added, Figure Will go to More than

2. Adding Average Annual Losses, the Figure Will be More than

121,500

156,000 Cr

india economic losses due to disasters
INDIAECONOMIC LOSSES DUE TO DISASTERS

139 %

50 %

PERIOD

86,000 Cr

Losses in Thousand Crores

Annual- Impact on People

1. Losses in lives - 4334.

2. People affected - 30 Million.

3. Houses lost - 2.34 Million.

Annual- Financial Losses

Percentage of Central Revenue

(for relief) – 12%.

slide10

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR INCREASING NUMBER OF DISASTERS

  • Population Growth and Urban Development
  • Development Practices
  • Climatic changes
  • Effect of Environmental degradation
slide12

POLAR ICE CAPS ARE MELTING FASTER THAN EVER…

MORE AND MORE LAND IS BEING DEVASTATED BY DROUGHT…

RISING WATERS ARE DROWNING LOW-LYING COMMUNITIES…

slide13

VICIOUS CYCLE

BURNING FOSSIL FUELS

AND BURNING FORESTS RELEASE CARBON

INUNDATING LOW COASTAL AREAS

GLOBAL WARMING

MELTING POLAR ICE RAISES SEA LEVELS

REDUCES OXYGEN AND INCREASES DROUGHT

NOW IT IS VERY MUCH EVIDENT THATCLIMATE DISRUPTIONS FEED OFF ONEANOTHER IN ACCELERATING SPIRALS OF DESTRUCTION.

division of responsibility

Hurricane Impact

(Law & Order)

Loss of Property and Lives

CHAOS

Early warning

Overwhelmed

State

Federal

24

48

72

96

Preparedness

Fed + State

Response (Fed + State )

HURRICANE KATRINA (US)

DIVISION OF RESPONSIBILITY

“The country’s Emergency Operations awesome in their potential, are also frighteningly inter dependent. Locals are in charge till they get overwhelmed. Then they cede control to Feds but not entirely. The Scarier things get, the fuzzier the lines of Authority become-------Uncertainty develops at crucial moments-------Leaders are afraid to actually Lead.---”

TIME, 19 September 2005

Response

IN HURRICANE RITA THE FEDERAL GOVT GOT INVOLVED FROM THE WARNING STAGE.

bangladesh a success story in preparedness response

500,000

138,000

127

111

1970 1991 1994 1997

BANGLADESH - A SUCCESS STORY IN PREPAREDNESS & RESPONSE

CYCLONES – AREA – COX BAZAAR

Even when Population had doubled

Losses of Lives

  • Remarks
  • Losses of lives shown for Cyclones with equal Intensity.
  • Success as a result of well defined Responsibilities and Coordinated & Efficient Response Mechanism.
slide17

MUMBAI FLOODS

Existed on Paper But,

Enforcement Lacking.

1. Plans

Most Crucial Responder -NOT Formally Part of Response Plan.

2. Police

Technological Shortfall -

Many Lives Could have Been Saved.

3. Timely

Warning

slide18

NATURAL DISASTERS – LESSONS LEARNT

1. Mitigation Systems Require Manifold Improvement & should be “Technology Driven”.

2. Weakness in “Early Warning Systems” and Dissemination of Information to Far Flung Areas.

3. Decision to Provide Aid :-

(a) Slow because of Procedures.

(b) Request from States not backed by Proper Assessment.

4. States Organizations – Not Geared to Guide & Receive Aid.

5. Disaster Response Resources at State Level –

Very Inadequate.

slide19

NATURAL DISASTERS – LESSONS LEARNT

6. Non Availability of Specialist Equipment,

(Incl Mobile Field Hospitals).

7. Assistance from NGOs NOT Coordinated & Optimised.

8. People - Principal Actors -- Focused Public Awareness Campaign a Must.

  • Post Disaster Relief & Reconstruction - Lot of GAPS.
  • Positive Lesson -- Role of the Armed Forces
slide21

WHAT IS A DISASTER?

DISASTER is an event which is –

-generally unpredictable,

-happens instantly or without giving enough time to react

-affecting a large number of people,

-disrupting normal life and leading to a large scale devastation in terms of loss of life and property

-always finding the administration and affected people struggling to respond in the desired manner and

-leaving deep socio-psychological, political and economic after effects which persist for a long time to come.

classification of disasters
CLASSIFICATION OF DISASTERS
  • Natural, Man-made & Human-induced
  • Disasters occur in varied forms
    • Some are predictable in advance
    • Some are annual or seasonal
    • Some are sudden and unpredictable
  • Factors leading to a Disaster
    • Meteorological, Geological, Ecological or Environmental, Technological Etc.
natural disasters
NATURAL DISASTERS
  • Floods
  • Earthquakes
  • Cyclones
  • Droughts
  • Landslides, Pest Attacks, Forest Fires, Avalanches etc
time duration of natural disasters
TIME DURATION OF NATURAL DISASTERS

Earthquakes -> Seconds/minutes

Cyclones -> Days

Floods -> Days

Droughts -> Months

slide25

DISASTER MANAGEMENT CONTINUUM

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

MITIGATION

LONG TERM MEASURES

RESPONSE

Risk Analysis

Rescue

Preparedness

Prevention

Rehab

Warning and Evacuation

Vulnerability Analysis

Structural Measures

Reconstruct. &

Recovery

Relief

Planning of Disaster Response

Hazard Assessment

Note

Non-Structural Measures

Being done efficiently

Needs better Planning

Risk Assessment

No Substantial Work

done so far

earthquake hazard zones 2002

IV

EARTHQUAKE HAZARD ZONES 2002

V

IV

V

V

III

Zone V MM IX or more

“ IV MM VIII

“ III MM VII

Zone II MM VI

“ I MM V or less

together now make

Zone II MM VI or less

Area under the zones

V 12%

IV 18%

III ~27%

Total damageable

~ 57%

III

V

slide30

Severe Risk Area

High Risk Area

Moderate Risk Area

Unlikely Occurrence

LANDSLIDES ZONATION MAP OF INDIA

slide31

VULNERABILITY OF STATES

Name

& No of States/UTs

Types of Disaster *

1

5

Gujarat

4

4

Maharashtra,

AP, Orissa & A&N Islands

10

3

NE States, W Bengal, Bihar, TN- - -

17

Delhi, UP - - - -

2

3

*Rajasthan,- - -

1

*Even though affected only by Drought but suffers heavy

Financial Losses averaging Rs. 3 to 8 Thousand Crores,Annually.

*Types:Earthquake,Cyclone,Tsunami,Flood,Drought &Landslide.

slide32

DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT, 2005

“In order to Coordinate Central Govt efforts in Preparedness, Prevention, Response, Mitigation, Relief and Rehabilitation and for adoption of a Holistic Pro-active Approach to Disaster Management, a NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY has come into being by an Act of Parliament in December 2005 under the Chairmanship of Prime Minister as the NODAL AGENCY for Disaster Management in the Country.”

slide33

NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE

GOVT OF INDIA

PLANNING COMMISSION

CABINET COMMITTEE ON SECURITY

NDMA / NEC

CABINET COMMITTEE ON MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL CALAMITIES

MHA

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT

OTHER MINISTRIES/ DEPARTMENTS

NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE

HIGH LEVEL COMMITTEE

NATIONAL CRISIS MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE

NATIONAL DISASTER MITIGATION RESOURCE CENTRE

ARMED FORCES

STATES/ UTs GOVTs

MINISTRIES/ DEPARTMENTS

HOME GUARD

POLICE

DEPARTMENT OF HOME

SDMAs

CIVIL DEFENCE

FIRE SERVICES

STATE DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE

DISTRICTS

POLICE & FIRE SERVICES

HOME GUARD

DDMAs

DEPARTMENTS

CIVIL DEFENCE

LOCAL BODIES/ AUTHORITIES

COMMUNITY

COMMUNITY

slide35

CHARTER

  • The ‘National Authority’ shall have the responsibility for laying down Policies, Plans and Guidelines for Disaster Management for ensuring Timely and Effective Response to disasters (Both Natural & Man Made).

2. Coordinate the Enforcement and Implementation of the Policy and Plans for Disaster Management.

3. International Assistance and Cooperation.

Ensure Implementation

Approve

Coord

Monitor

Plan

slide36

VISION

“The National Vision is, to build a Safer and Disaster Resilient India, by developing a Holistic, Proactive, Multi-hazard and Technology-Driven Strategy for DM. This will be achieved through a Culture of Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness to generate, a prompt and efficient Response at the time of Disasters. The entire process will Centre-Stage the Community and will be provided Momentum and Sustenance through Collective efforts of all Government Agencies and Non-Governmental Organisations.

slide38

NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY

CHAIRMAN

(PRIME MINISTER)

CABINET COMMITTEE

ON SECURITY

CABINET COMMITTEE ON MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL CALAMITIES

VICE CHAIRMAN

POLICIES,PREVENTION,MITIGATION & PREPAREDNESS

MR. NVC MENON

MEMBER

MR. K.M. SINGH

MEMBER

Mr B BHATTACHARJEE

MEMBER

Mrs. P.J RAO

MEMBER

LT. GEN. JRB

MEMBER

MR. M.K.

MEMBER

MR. M. S. REDDY

MEMBER

NATIONAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

SECRETARY NDMA

DISASTER MANAGEMENT WING

CAPACITY BUILDING,COMMUNICATIONS & NEOC WING

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT

NATIONAL DISASTER MITIGATION RESOURCE CENTRES

NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE

slide39

DISASTER MANAGEMENT WING

Media & Public Preparedness

International Cooperation

Financial Advisor

Mitigation & Preparedness

Policies & Plans

Community

Preparedness

Media &

Information

Project

Monitoring

Finance

Policies

Accounts

& Audits

Plans

Project

Formulation &

Preparedness

slide40

CAPACITY BUILDING, COMMUNICATIONS& NEOC

COMMUNICATIONS,SYS & KM

NEOC & CAPACITY BUILDING

Systems & KM

Communications

Operations & Logistics

Capacity Building

Knowledge

Management

& IDRN

Network

IT &

Systems

Logistics

Network

Control

Room

Operational

Commns

Coordina

tion

Logistics

Strategic

Planning

& Policy

Scenario

Building

slide42

NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE

    • NDRF consists of 8 battalions, with 144 self sustaining teams for rendering effective response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster.
    • Four battalions are for natural disasters and four for NBC.
    • NBC battalions will also be trained in combating natural disasters.
    • The force will be equipped with State of the Art equipment and will be deployed in anticipatory manner to provide instantaneous response.
    • It will work under NDMA and will be located at nine vulnerable locations.
    • They will maintain close liaison with the State Governments and will be available to them automatically, thus, avoiding long procedural delays.
    • Four Training Centres have been set up by PMF to train their respective NDRF Battalions.
    • They will also meet the requirement of States/ UTs.
    • NDRF Battalions will impart basic training to State Disaster Response Force in their respective locations.
slide43

NDRF BNS – REGIONAL MITIGATION RESOURCE CENTRES (RMRCS) & TRAINING CENTRES

PATNA (SSB)

½ Bn

½

Bn

Each

CHANDIGARH

GUWAHATI

GR. NOIDA

KOLKATA

GANDHINAGAR

BHUBANESHWAR

PUNE

HYDERABAD

LATUR

CHENNAI

NAGPUR

LEGEND

NDRF BNs/ RMRCs

TRAINING CENTRES

APEX TRAINING CENTRE

slide44

CONSTITUTION OF SPECIALISED SEARCH

AND RESCUE TEAM

Team Commander

(Inspector)

2 IC/ Ops Officer

(Sub Inspector)

Team C

(6)

Team D

(6)

Dog Squad

(3)

Medical

Support

Team

(3)

Team A

(6)

Team B

(6)

Tech.

Support

(6)

Adm. Support Team

(7)

Total – 45 Personnel

slide45

CONSTITUTION OF SEARCH AND RESCUE TEAM FOR NBC EMERGENCIES

Team Commander

(Inspector)

Information

Officer

(Sub Inspector)

Safety

Officer

(Sub Inspector)

Dy Team

Leader

(Sub Inspector)

Tech.

Support

(4)

Detection &

Assessment

Cum

Evacuation

Team (6)

Rescue

And

Evacuation

Team (6)

Rescue

and

Evacuation

Team (6)

Deconta-

mination

Team

(6)

Medical Unit

(6)

Adm. Support Team (7)

Total – 45 Personnel

slide46

“For Development to be Sustainable,

Disaster Mitigation Must be Built Into

The Planning Process”

slide47

“EVERY DISASTER

MUST BE TREATED

AS

AN OPPORTUNITY

TO BUILD BACK BETTER”

slide48

DON’T PASS IT ON

TAKE IT ON

TAKE IT ON

TAKE IT ON

hazard
HAZARD

A dangerous condition or events that threaten or have the potential for causing injury to life or damage to property or the environment. Hazards are basically grouped in two broad headings:

  • Natural Hazards (hazards with meteorological, geological or biological origin)
  • Unnatural Hazards (hazards with human-caused or technological origin)

Natural phenomena are extreme climatological, hydrological, or geological, processes. A massive earthquake in an unpopulated area, is a natural phenomenon, not a hazard. But when these natural phenomena interact with the man made habitat, they may cause wide spread damage. Then, they become hazard

vulnerability
VULNERABILITY

Vulnerability is defined as "The extent to which a community, structure, service, or geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of particular hazard, on account of their nature, construction and proximity to hazardous terrain or a disaster prone area.“

  • Physical vulnerability – weak buildings, bridges, service lines, lifeline structures, production units etc.
  • Social & Economic vulnerability

Human losses in disasters in developing countries are seen to be higher when compared to developed countries.

slide52
RISK

Risk is a measure of the expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, economic activity etc) due to a hazard of a particular magnitude or Intensity occurring in a given area over a specific time period.

  • Exposure:the value and importance of the various types of structures and lifeline systems (such as water-supply, communication network, transportation network etc in the community serving the population)
slide53

HAZARD –VULNERABILITY-

RISK –

DISASTER

slide54

LESSONS LEARNT – HURRICANE KATRINA

“ And any time you break that cycle of Preparing, Responding, Recovering and Mitigating, you are doomed to failure. And the policies and decision that were implemented by DHS put FEMA on a path to failure.”

-Michael Brown,Director,FEMA

General

1. The Foremost Lesson - all Facets of Disaster Cycle should be under one Agency and not split among Multi-facet Authorities.

Mitigation & Preparedness

2. State’s Sovereignty be maintained in all Phases of Disaster Cycle.

3. Creating Culture of Preparedness at Community level.

4. Integrated Approach (of the Civil and Military efforts) for Preparedness. Coopt Armed Forces in Disaster Response Plan.

5. Removal of Red Tapism and Bureaucratic Approach. US National Response Plan is elaborate but Failed to Deliver. Need to Rewrite Rationale Response Plan to include, conduct of mock drills periodically, state-of-the-art system in supply chain management of relief supplies and inventory tracking.

slide55

6. Training and Equipping of Central Response Force duly backed by trained teams from Armed Forces

7. Safe Houses . Identify shelters, for accommodating evacuees, both in Govt and Private Sector, during Emergencies.

8. Establishment of a Homeland Security University. On the lines of National Defence University, for General Awareness, Training and Research.

9. Use of Experts to find solutions to disaster related issues.

Communications

10. Failure within the DHS and in Communicating Relevant Information to Public, for Early Warning, resulting in all available Federal Assets not being utilised. Need to develop a more ComprehensiveEmergency Communication System, to ensure Survivability, Operability, Inter-Operability and Redundancy.

Response

11. Disaster Response Group at Central level to resolve disagreements

on Employment of Resources. This Group should also act as Single

Window Assistance Access for public.

12. Security of Assets by employing Local Law Enforcing Force for Law and Order.

slide56

13. Coordination, between:

(a) Search & Rescue and Medical Teams.

(b) State and Central Response Teams

(c) Local (Distt), State and Central Response Teams, to have inter-operable Communication Network.

(d) At State level, Volunteer Coordinators in` State Emergency OperationCentre, for coordinating Volunteer Efforts, like Debris Clearance, etc.

(e) Integrated Command at field level – local Response Units (National

Guards) and Active Duty Forces (ex Armed Forces) to work in tandem. Mobile Command Field Centre near disaster site (not 80 km away

in Baton Rouge like during Katrina).

14. Need for National Emergency Operation Centre at DHS. DHS to have

a National Emergency Operations Centre, in addition to White House

Situation Room, regardless of whether President & the Secretary DHS are

in same place, to maintain flow of information from one agency.

15. Integrated Response. Civil and military assets to be combined and

employed as one resource and NOT in a graduated manner.

slide57

STRATEGY

DISASTER RISK REDUCTION

FOR

slide58

STRATEGIES FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT

  • Change of Focus from Relief Centric to Holistic Approach.
  • Mainstreaming Disaster Management into all National Developmental Programmes.
  • Empowerment of the Community to face the Disaster.
  • Emphasis on Training, Development of Human Capital and Capacity Building.
  • Key Role of Educational and Professional Institutions for Mass Education and Awareness.
  • Upgradation of the Key Responders.
slide59

STRATEGIES FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT

7. Supporting and Enabling Mechanisms for the Districts and States.

8. Failsafe Early Warning & Communication Systems.

9. Coordinated, Timely and Effective Response.

10. Involvement of NGOs & Corporate Sectors.

11. Time Bound Action Plan for Earthquakes, Floods & Cyclones.

12. Pro-active Participation at the Regional and International Level.

slide60

POLICY FORMULATION TEAM COMPOSTION

1. Concerned Member of Authority.2. Concerned Ministry – Representative. 3. Lead/Nodal Organisations/Departments - Representatives.4. Project Team (When Study ordered on the Subject).5. Advisors/Experts.6. Leading National (Academic – IITs) Institutions.Secretarial Support7. Additional Secretary.8. Joint Secretary Planning. 9. DDG Strategic Planning.