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Zooplankton. http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk. Planktos: “drifts” in greek. Their distribution depends on currents and gyres Certain zooplankton can swim well, but distribution controlled by current patterns

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slide1

Zooplankton

http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk

planktos drifts in greek
Planktos: “drifts” in greek
  • Their distribution depends on currents and gyres
  • Certain zooplankton can swim well, but distribution controlled by current patterns
  • Zooplankton: all heterotrophic plankton except bacteria and viruses; size range from 2 µm (heterotrophic flagellates, protists) up to several meters (jellyfish)
nutritional modes in zooplankton
Nutritional modes in zooplankton
  • Herbivores: feed primarily on phytoplankton
  • Carnivores: feed primarily on other zooplankton (animals)
  • Detrivores: feed primarily on dead organic matter (detritus) 
  • Omnivores: feed on mixed diet of plants and animals and detritus
feeding modes in zooplankton
Feeding modes in Zooplankton
  • Filter feeders
  • Predators – catch individual particles
filter feeder8
Filter Feeder

Ctenophore

predator
Predator

Chaetognath

Arrow Worm

life cycles in zooplankton
Life cycles in Zooplankton
  • Holoplankton: spend entire life in the water column (pelagic)
  • Meroplankton: spend only part of their life in the pelagic environment, mostly larval forms of invertebrates and fish
  • Ichthyoplankton: fish eggs and fish larvae
holoplankton
Holoplankton

Copepods

Planktonic crustaceans

barnacles benthic sessile crustacean
Barnacles: benthic sessile crustacean

http://science.whoi.edu/labs/pinedalab/

meroplankton
Meroplankton

Nauplius larva

http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk

meroplankton15
Meroplankton

Cypris larva

http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk

slide17

Cypris larva and metamorphosed juveniles

http://science.whoi.edu/labs/pinedalab/

barnacle population regulation
Barnacle population regulation

http://science.whoi.edu/labs/pinedalab/

slide19

Ichthyoplankton

Gadidae

Gadus morhua

slide20

Gadidae

Gadus morhua

Ichthyoplankton

slide21

Gadidae

Gadus morhua

Ichthyoplankton

slide22

Gadidae

Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

Demersal Adult

protists protozooplankton
Protists: Protozooplankton
  • Dinoflagellates: heterotrophic relatives to the phototrophic Dinophyceae; naked and thecate forms. Noctiluca miliaris – up to 1 mm or bigger, bioluminescence, prey on fish egg & zooplankton
  • Zooflagellates: heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF): taxonomically mixed group of small, naked flagellates, feed on bacteria and small phytoplankton; choanoflagellates: collar around flagella
  • Foraminifera: relatives of amoeba with calcareous shell, which is composed of a series of chambers; contribute to ooze sediments; 30 µm to 1-2 mm, bacteriovores; most abundant 40°N – 40°S
slide24

Dinoflagellates

Noctiluca miliaris

slide25

Colonial choanoflagellates

Bacteriofages (Ross Sea)

http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1999/nsf98106/98106htm/ht-015.gif

protists protozooplankton27
Protists: Protozooplankton
  • Radiolaria:spherical, amoeboid cells with silica capsule; 50 µm to several mm; contribute to silica ooze sediments, feed on bacteria, small phyto- and zooplankton; cold water and deep-sea
  • Ciliates:feed on bacteria, phytoplankton, HNF; naked forms more abundant but hard to study (delicate!); tintinnids: sub-group of ciliates with vase-like external shell made of protein; herbivores
figure 3 21b
Figure 3.21b

Radiolarians (siliceous – low latitudes)

slide30

Live Radiolarian

http://www-odp.tamu.edu/public/life/199/radiolaria.jpg

invertebrate holoplankton
Invertebrate Holoplankton
  • Cnidaria: primitive group of metazoans; some holoplanktonic, others have benthis stages; carnivorous (crustaceans, fish); long tentacles carry nematocysts used to inject venoms into prey; box jellyfish of Australia kills humans within minutes
    • Medusae: single organisms, few mm to several meters
    • Siphonophores: colonies of animals with specialization: feeding polyps, reproductive polyps, swimming polyps; Physalia physalis (Portuguese man-of-war), common in tropical waters, Gulf of Mexico, drifted by the wind and belong to the pleuston (live on top of water surface)
invertebrate holoplankton35
Invertebrate Holoplankton
  • Ctenophores:separate phylum, do not belong to Cnidaria; transparent organisms, swimm with fused cilia; no nematocysts; prey on zooplankton, fish eggs, sometimes small fish; important to fisheries due to grazing on fish eggs and competition for fish food
  • Chaetognaths: arrow worms, carnivorous, <4 cm Polychaets: Tomopteris spp. only important planktonic genus
invertebrate holoplankton38
Invertebrate Holoplankton
  • Mollusca: 
    • Heteropods: small group of pelagic relatives of snails, snail foot developed into a single “fin”; good eyes, visual predators
    • Pteropods: snail foot developed into paired “wings”; suspension feeder – produce large mucous nets to capture prey; carbonate shells produce pteropod ooze on sea floor
slide40

Pteropod

http://www.mbari.org/expeditions/

protochordate holoplankton
Protochordate Holoplankton
  • Appendicularia: group of Chordata, live in gelatinous balloons (house) that are periodically abandoned; empty houses provide valuable carbon source for bacteria and help to form marine snow; filter feeders of nanoplankton
  • Salps or Tunicates:group of Chordata, mostly warm water; typically barrel-form, filter feeders; occur in swarms, which can wipe the water clean of nanoplankton; large fecal bands, transport of nano- and picoplankton to deep-sea; single or colonies
arthropoda crustacean zooplankton
Arthropoda: crustacean zooplankton
  • Cladocera (water fleas): six marine species (Podon spp., Evadne spp.), one brackish water species in the Baltic Sea; fast reproduction by parthenogenesis (without males and egg fertilization) and pedogenesis (young embryos initiate parthenogenetic reproduction before hatching)
  • Amphipoda: less abundant in pelagic environment, common genus Themisto; frequently found on siphonophores, medusae, ctenophores, salps
  • Euphausiida: krill; 15-100 mm, pronounced vertical migration; not plankton sensu strictu; visual predators, fast swimmers, often undersampled because they escape plankton nets; important as prey for commercial fish (herring, mackerel, salmon, tuna) and whales (Antarctica)
slide47

http://www.imagequest3d.com/catalogue/deepsea/images/l038_jpg.jpghttp://www.imagequest3d.com/catalogue/deepsea/images/l038_jpg.jpg

arthropoda crustacean zooplankton49
Arthropoda: crustacean zooplankton
  • Copepoda:most abundant zooplankton in the oceans, “insects of the sea“; herbivorous, carnivorous and omnivorous species
    • Calanoida: most of marine planktonic species
    • Cyclopoida: most of freshwater planktonic species
    • Harpacticoida: mostly benthic/near-bottom species
  • Copepod development: first six larval stages = nauplius (pl. nauplii), followed by six copepodit stages (CI to CVI)
  • Tropical species distinct by their long antennae and setae on antennae and legs (podi)
common meroplankton
Common Meroplankton
  • Mollusca: clams and snails produce shelled veliger larvae; ciliated velum serves for locomotion and food collection
  • Cirripedia: barnacles produce nauplii, which turn to cypris 
  • Echinodermata: sea urchins, starfish and sea cucumber produce pluteus larvae of different shapes, which turn into brachiolaria larvae (starfish); metamorphosis to adult is very complex
  • Polychaeta: brittle worms and other worms produce trochophora larvae, mostly barrel- shaped with several bands of cilia
common meroplankton53
Common Meroplankton
  • Decapoda: shrimps and crabs produce zoëa larvae; they turn into megalopa larvae in crabs before settling to the sea floor
  • Pisces: fish eggs and larvae referred to as ichthyoplankton; fish larvae retain part of the egg yolk in a sack below their body until mouth and stomach are fully developed
meroplanktonic larvae
Meroplanktonic Larvae
  • Planktotrophic
    • Feeding larvae
    • Longer Planktonic Duration Times
    • High dispersal potential
  • Lecithotrophic (non-feeding)
    • Non-feeding larvae
    • Shorter planktonic Duration Times
    • Low dispersal potential
slide56

Molluscs:

Meroplankonic Veliger larvae

PLANKTOTROPHIC

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sharks/island/images/veliger.jpeg

vertical distribution
Vertical Distribution
  • Epipelagic: upper 200-300 m water column; high diversity, mostly small and transparent organisms; many herbivores
  • Mesopelagic = 300 – 1000 m; larger than epipelagic relatives; large forms of gelatinous zooplankton (jellyfish, appendicularians) due to lack of wave action; some larger species (krill) partly herbivorous with nightly migration into epipelagic regimes 
  • Oxygen Minimum Zone: 400 – 800 m depth, accumulation of fecal material due to density gradient, attract high bacterial growth, which in turn attracts many bacterial and larger grazers; strong respiration reduces O2 content from 4-6 mg l-1 to < 2 mg l-1
  • Bathypelagic: 1000 – 3000 m depth, many dark red colored, smaller eyes
  • Abyssopelagic: > 3000 m depth, low diversity and low abundance
  • Demersal or epibenthic: live near or temporarily on the seafloor; mostly crustaceans (shrimp and mysids) and fish
diel vertical migration
Diel Vertical Migration
  • DAILY (diel) vertical migrations over distances of <100 to >800 m
    • Nocturnal: single daily ascent beginning at sunset, and single daily descent beginning at sunrise
    • Twilight: two ascents and descents per day (one each assoc. with each twilight period)
    • Reversed: single ascent to surface during day, and descent to max. depth during night
exotic planktonic species
Exotic Planktonic species

New England Ctenophore  Black Sea

slide66

Water Tank Ballast

  • Holoplankton
  • Meroplankton
black sea ballast invasions69
Black Sea Ballast Invasions

Mnemiopsis

Beroe ovata