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Engineering drought-tolerant crops plants Eduardo Blumwald Dept. of Plant Sciences, University of Calif PowerPoint Presentation
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slide1

Engineering drought-tolerant crops plants

          • Eduardo Blumwald
  • Dept. of Plant Sciences, University of California@Davis
slide3

Observations: (i) Salt and Drought stress accelerate the senescence of plants. (ii) Stress modifies Sink/source relationships.(iii) Cytokinins delay leaf senescence.

Hypothesis:In contrast to the common dogma that senescence is a beneficial process to plants during stress, it is possible to actually enhance the tolerant of plants to drought if the drought-induced senescence of leaves is delayed during the drought episode.Rationale:Based on the assumption that senescence is a type of cell death program that could be unnecessarily activated in different plants during stress and that suppressing it would enable plants to mount a vigorous acclimation response

Strategy:Regulated IPT expression by a maturation- and stress-inducible promoter, could maintain optimal levels of cytokinin levels during stress, delaying stress-induced senescence. [IPT (isopentenyl transferase ) is the limiting factor for cytokinin biosynthesis]

slide4

SARK

IPT

slide6

K

Wild-type and transgenic plants expressing PSARK::IPT plants after

15 days drought Treatment followed by 7 days re-watering.

Wild-type

PSARK::IPT

slide7

Oxidative Metabolism Conclusions

WT

hn

SOD

O2-

O2

e-

H2O2

PSII

CAT

PSI

GSH

AsA

NADP+

H2O

NADP+

GR

DHAR

APX

MDHAR

NADPH

GSSG

NADPH

DHA

MDHA

H2O

slide8

APX

Oxidative Metabolism Conclusions

424

hn

SOD

O2-

O2

e-

H2O2

PSII

CAT

PSI

GSH

AsA

NADP+

H2O

NADP+

MDHAR

GR

DHAR

NADPH

GSSG

NADPH

DHA

MDHA

H2O

slide11

RESTRICTED AMOUNT OF WATER EXPERIMENTS

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE

WATER USE EFFICIENCY

slide12

A/Ci CURVES:

CO2 assimilation rate [μmol CO2.m-2s-1

CO2 assimilation rate [μmol CO2.m-2s-1

Internal leaf [CO2] (Pa)

Internal leaf [CO2] (Pa)

slide13

Vcmax = maximum rate

of carboxylation by Rubisco

Jmax = PAR-saturated rate of

electron transport (based in NADPH

requirements for RuBP regeneration)

TPU = the rate of Triose Phosphate

Utilization, indicating the availability

of inorganic Pi for the Calvin Cycle

“Photosyn Assistant” Program to determine factors limiting CO2 assimilation

(Farquhar et al., (1980), Sharkey (1985), Harley and Sharkey (1991) and Harley et al. (1992)

slide15

-1.35

1.75

1.96

0.91

1.96

0.91

2.16

pSARK-IPT 300 ml vs WT 300 ml

[Log2 (Ratio)]

CALVIN

CYCLE

slide18

C

C

M

M

M

P

slide21

Amino acids/flavonoids

GA/IAA/etc.

sugars

GSH

slide24

OWA

½ OWA

1/3 OWA

1/4 OWA

FIELD TRIALS – Brawley (Imperial Valley, CA)

slide26

Effect of restricted watering (% OWA) on yield of WT and pSARK-IPT plants

12%

FW [g/plant]

13%

WT

47%

T2-36

T4-24

Treatment [% of OWA]

slide27

Effect of restricted watering (% OWA) on yield of WT and pSARK-IPT plants

DW [g/plant]

WT

T2-36

T4-24

Treatment [% of OWA]

slide28

Transgenic lines

Collaborations: Cassava – Willi Gruissem (ETH Zurich)

Cotton – Hong Zhang (Texas Tech Univ)

Flowers – Ryohei Nakano (Okayama University, JAPAN)

Alfalfa – INTA (Castelar, Argentina)

Sugar cane – Judy Zhu (Hawaii Ag. Center)

slide29

Will W. Lester Endowment

Dr. Rosa M. Rivero

Ellen Tumimbang

Rosa Jauregui

Dr. Lianhai Fu

UC Davis Genome Center

Prof. Shimon Gepstein (Technion,Israel)

Prof. Ron Mittler (Univ. of Nevada@Reno)

Prof. H. Sakakibara (RIKEN, Tsurumi, Yokohama, Japan)

Dr. Ann Blechl (USDA, Albany, CA)