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HVAC 101. The Basics of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Presented by: Mike Barcik and Jeff Ross-Bain, PE Southface Energy Institute. Southface Energy Institute Sensible Solutions for Environmental Living. Energy Code Workshops Greenprints Commercial Systems EarthCraft House.

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hvac 101

HVAC 101

The Basics of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

Presented by: Mike Barcik and Jeff Ross-Bain, PE

Southface Energy Institute

southface energy institute sensible solutions for environmental living
Southface Energy InstituteSensible Solutions for Environmental Living
  • Energy Code Workshops
  • Greenprints
  • Commercial Systems
  • EarthCraft House

www.southface.org

slide3
HVAC
  • Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
  • Provides comfortfor people
  • Allows humans to exist under adverse conditions.
comfort
Comfort
  • Comfort is primary intent of HVAC systems.
  • Productivity
  • Building Durability
  • Health
  • Mold
load calculations
Load Calculations
  • Heating and Cooling
  • Accuracy important!
  • Design conditions
  • Building shell load
  • R, U value
  • Internal load
  • Ventilation load
  • Infiltration
  • Occupancy schedules
heat transfer
Heat Transfer
  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Radiation
  • Resistance (R-Value)
  • U = 1 / R
  • Q = U x A x T

U-Value is the rate of heat flow in Btu/h through a one ft2 area when one side is 1oF warmer

solar heat gain coefficient
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient
  • The amount of solar heat energy allowed to pass through a window
  • Example: SHGC = 0.40

Allows 40% through and turns 60% away

psychrometrics
Psychrometrics
  • Dry bulb temp.
  • Wet bulb temp.
  • Humidity
  • Dew point
  • Moisture content
  • Heating
  • Cooling
  • Humidify
  • De-Humidify

Psychrometric Chart

basic refrigeration cycle
Basic Refrigeration Cycle

Condenser

Compressor

Expansion Valve

Evaporator

basic hvac equipment
Basic HVAC Equipment
  • Fans / Blowers
  • Furnace / Heating unit
  • Filters
  • Compressor
  • Condensing units
  • Evaporator (cooling coil)
  • Control System
  • Air Distribution System
system types and common terms
System Types and Common Terms

Constant Volume

Variable Volume

Indoor Air Quality

Direct Expansion

  • Packaged Rooftop Unit
  • Split System
  • Heat Pump
  • Geothermal
  • Air to Air
  • Hydronic (water)
  • PTAC / PTHP
split system
Split System

Ductwork

Heating

and Cooling

Equipment

FURNACE

Temperature &

Humidity Controls

A/C UNIT

heat pump
Heat Pump
  • Operate on simple refrigeration cycle
  • Reversing the cycle provides heating
  • Temperature limitations
  • Air to air
  • Water source
  • Geothermal
  • Lake coupled
variable air volume
Variable Air Volume

Variable Speed Supply Fan

Supply Ducts

VAV Box

Filters

Reheat Coil

Return Air

Heat Coil w/Temp Reset

T

T

Cool Coil w/Temp Reset

Zone Thermostat

Return Ducts

Variable Speed Return Fan

HVAC-17

terminal units
Terminal Units

Variable volume: Parallel

Constant volume: Series

hydronic systems
Hydronic systems
  • Pumps
  • Piping
  • Valves
control devices
Control Devices
  • Thermostats
    • Manual
    • Programmable
  • Optimum Start
  • DDC Systems
  • Variable Speed Drives
  • Automatic Valves and Dampers
  • Outdoor Sensors
major equipment
Major Equipment
  • Chillers
  • Boilers
  • Cooling Towers
economizers
Economizers

Air Side

Water Side

economizers23
Economizers

Free cooling source: When available, use cool outdoor air instead of mechanically cooled air.

Minimum supply of outside air

55 oF and up

55 oF

85%

outside air

85%

exhaust

80 oF

80 oF

Normal Operation

Outside air dampers are positioned to provide the minimum outside air

Economizer Operation

Outside air dampers are fully open. Maximum outside air is provided

HVAC-23

zoning and economizers

N

W

Core

E

S

Zoning and Economizers
  • Economizers provide “free cooling” when outdoor conditions are optimal
  • Proper orientation & zoning yields comfort & efficiency

HVAC-24

air distribution
Air Distribution
  • Ductwork
    • Metal
    • Flexible
    • Ductboard
  • Grilles, Louvers,

& Registers

  • Dampers
    • Shut off
    • Fire
    • Smoke
  • Sealants
  • Supports
additional equipment
Additional Equipment
  • Energy Recovery Units
  • Desiccant Systems
additional equipment28
Additional Equipment
  • Heat Exchangers
  • Humidifiers
  • Silencers
mechanical dehumidification
Mechanical Dehumidification
  • Return air is mixed with ventilation air
  • Cold coil condenses moisture
  • Heat is added back (electric or gas) so that room air is not over cooled- Reheat

Filter

historical minimum ventilation rates cfm person
Historical Minimum Ventilation Rates (cfm/person)

Smoking 62-89

Flugge 1905

Billings 1895

Nightengale 1865

Smoking 62-81

ASH- RAE 62-89

ASHRAE 62-73

Tredgold 1836

Yaglou 1938

ASHRAE 62-81

improved ventilation effectiveness
Improved Ventilation Effectiveness
  • Mechanically provide filtered and dehumidified outdoor air to the breathing space
  • Vary ventilation based on the number of occupants and process loads - changes in occupancy can be measured by CO2 sensors
  • Consider designs that separate ventilation and space conditioning
  • Utilize heat recovery systems to reduce system size and ventilation energy costs
improved ventilation effectiveness32
Improved Ventilation Effectiveness
  • Effective mixing of ventilation air within space
  • Net positive pressure in the southeast; exhaust from appropriate spaces
  • Provide clean outdoor air, avoid:
    • loading docks
    • exhaust vents
    • plumbing stacks
    • waste collection
    • stagnant water
additional information resources
Additional Information / Resources
  • ASHRAE – The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
    • www.ashrae.org
  • Southface Energy Institute www.southface.org
  • Geothermal heat pump consortium www.geoexchange.org
  • www.buildingscience.com
  • www.energycodes.gov