Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org. Rocks. Made By: Amy Barker. Rocks. In this lesson you will learn about the rock cycle and what some kinds of rocks there are on Earth. First thing we will begin with is identifying the three main different kinds of rocks.
Made By: Amy Barker
In this lesson you will learn about the rock cycle
and what some kinds of rocks there are on Earth.
First thing we will begin with is identifying the
three main different kinds of rocks.
Below are three different kinds of rocks. Using what you already know about rocks, can you determine what kind is which?
The three main types of rocks are Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary. Igneous rocks are made from volcanic material. Metamorphic rocks are rocks that were something else but have been changed. Sedimentary rocks are made of small particles of rock.
This rock is called an obsidian.
It is an example of an igneous
rock is called gneiss.
Limestone is considered
a sedimentary rock.
Believe it or not, but all of these kinds of rocks are related. Their
relationship to one another is called The Rock Cycle. Study the
picture and see how one type of rock can be changed to another kind.
The formation of igneous rocks depends solely on magma.
As you can see from this diagram, an oceanic plate drives itself
underneath the continental plate. This is called a fault. The oceanic
plate is more dense than the continental plate making it go underneath
the lighter continental plate. The oceanic plate activates the zone of
magma generation, causing it to come up through the Earth’s crust
and create a volcano. The magma that reaches the surface is
called lava, and when it cools, it forms igneous rock.
batholith in this picture, reaches the surface. Some of it remains
in dikes, sills, and laccoliths. This magma then cools over a long
period of time and becomes igneous rock also.
For more information about the formation of igneous rocks, go to
Igneous Rock Formation
This igneous rock is called basalt. It
is generally found on the surface of
the Earth, composed of cooled lava.
Granite is a common form of igneous
rock found. Below is a picture of
Granite in a close-up view.
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that were once of one kind but because
of heat, pressure, or a chemical change, they were changed into
something else. These rocks are called metamorphic rocks because
they are “morphed,” or changed to a different kind of rock. The rocks
could have been either igneous, sedimentary, or even another
metamorphic rock to begin with.
This rock is called granite.
It is an igneous rock. Because
of heat and pressure, it can be
changed to a metamorphic rock
This is what becomes
Of granite when it is
“morphed.” This is marble.
This is a close-up of
a section of marble
the formation of igneous rocks. When igneous rock is hot magma,
the rock surrounding this magma heats up also. This rock will
become very hot and will change because of the heat and pressure.
When it cools, it will no longer be exactly like what it was originally.
It will have changed to metamorphic rock.
This is a conglomerate rock.
It was formed from heat and
pressure and turned into a
This “morphed” rock is called
when very hot fluids fill the pores of existing rock because of heat
and intense pressure. The fluids can cause chemical reactions to
occur. Over time, these chemical reactions can change what the
rock is made up of. The result is a new metamorphic rock.
Slate is a commonly found metamorphic
rock. It has been used for chalk boards
and gravestones, but because it has a
tendency to crack over time with exposure
to water, other rock materials are used in
replace of slate today.
Metamorphic Rock Formation
Sedimentary rocks are made from other rocks that have been
weathered. Weathering is the breaking down of rock pieces into
smaller pieces. These small pieces of rock are then cemented
together, compacted tightly, crystallized again to form new
This is a close-up view of sandstone,
a type of sedimentary rock. Notice
the different colored particles
that this rock is made up of. This
gives the impression that it is made
up of many different kinds of rock
that have been broken down into small
pieces and have been compacted
because the rocks were formed underwater. A river or stream picks
up sediment along its path. When the river or stream drains into a
large body of water, the sediment falls to the floor and accumulates.
Different kinds of sediment are carried downstream at different times.
This causes layers of different colored particles to accumulate.
and other organic material. Where
coal is found makes scientists believe
that there was plant growth in the past.
This is an example of a fossiliferous rock.
This simply means that fossils are present
in this sedimentary rock.
Four different types of sedimentary rock are fossiliferous, coal,
shale, and sandstone.
Sandstone is formed by sand that
could have been weathered by the
wind or could have accumulated in
part of a river bottom.
This sedimentary rock is called shale. It
is formed by mud, which gives us the impression
that it was part of a river or lake bottom in
For more information on the formation of sedimentary rock, go to
Sedimentary Rock Formation
about igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks.
Use what you know about rocks and go out into the world and
see if you can identify what kind of rocks are where.
learned a little about
the rock cycle and the
different rocks found on
Earth, complete the rock
Remember, if you get
stuck on a question, you
can always go back in the presentation and look for the answers.
The answer key is also provided when you finish the worksheet.
Below are some links to various web sites that may be helpful
in making a more complete lesson on the rock cycle.