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Differentiating Libraries through Enriched User Searching: FRBR Implementation in Virtua. Back to Basics – and Flying Into the Future Cataloging 2007, Reykjavik, Iceland, 1-2 February 2007. John Espley, Director for Design, VTLS Inc. VTLS and FRBR. Current Virtua Release is Release 48

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slide1

Differentiating Libraries through Enriched User Searching:

FRBR Implementation in Virtua

Back to Basics – and Flying Into the Future

Cataloging 2007, Reykjavik, Iceland, 1-2 February 2007

John Espley, Director for Design, VTLS Inc.

slide2

VTLS and FRBR

  • Current Virtua Release is Release 48
  • First FRBR customer (UCL) was in 2003 with Release 41
  • Important Split for Users
      • Choose to implementFRBR
      • Choose to ignore FRBR
      • Have a mixed catalog with FRBR records and non-FRBR records
virtua and frbr
Virtua and FRBR
  • MARC based system
  • Mapping from regular cataloging to FRBR
    • One record to three linked records
      • Work, Expression, Manifestation
    • Initial mapping done independently by LC (Tom Delsey) and by VTLS (John Espley) – there was little difference
design considerations in frbr
Design Considerations in FRBR
  • Design is a matter of choices; Good design is a matter of good choices
  • Five key questions
    • Store FRBR records?
    • Have a pure or mixed FRBRized catalog?
    • What tools are needed to support cataloging?
    • How to display FRBR records?
    • What features would users like?
design considerations in frbr5
Design Considerations in FRBR

Store FRBR Records (or FRBRize at display) ?

  • Records are cataloged once assessed many times; FRBRizing at access was not optimal
  • Collocation was easier for stored FRBR records
  • Validations checks for works, expressions and manifestations was cleaner for stored records
  • Cataloging was simpler and easily understood
slide6

Design Considerations in FRBR

Have a Pure or Mixed FRBRized Catalog?

  • Studies at VTLS and OCLC showed that about 18% of catalog records would gain by FRBRizing
  • Pure catalogs would be easier to display but would require more effort to convert
  • Mixed catalogs would take less overhead and provide for gradual (over time) implementation
  • Mixed catalogs would provide for selective FRBRization if necessary
slide7

Design Considerations in FRBR

What Tools are Needed to Support Cataloging?

  • FRBRize button – converts any record to FRBR
  • Automatic linking between W-E-M records
  • Context sensitive validation for W-E-M records
  • Copying “whole” FRBR tree from catalog to catalog
  • Analyze catalog for FRBR candidates
  • Batch FRBRize the whole catalog (as in LC music)
  • UnFRBRize records for distribution & error correction
slide8

Design Considerations in FRBR

How to Display FRBR Records?

  • FRBR expandable tree structure
  • Use of Icons
  • FRBR reverse tree structure
    • Music collections
    • Bound with
  • See examples that follow later
slide9

Design Considerations in FRBR

What Features Would Users Like?

  • Record sensitive displays – standard records display different form FRBR display
  • Collocation
  • Multilingual access based on FRBR data
  • Navigation – hence reverse tree
  • Circulation holds at W-E-M levels
slide10

FRBR Examples

  • VTLS Implementation
    • First FRBR customer was UCL in 2003
    • VTLS continues to create examples to demonstrate the use of FRBR in library catalogs
    • Links to 12 examples on following slide
    • The complete PowerPoint presentation can be found at:
      • http://www.vtls.com/Corporate/FRBR.shtml
frbr examples
FRBR Examples

Click Corresponding button for example

frbr demonstration
FRBR Demonstration
  • Beethoven Example
    • Search on Author Beethoven
      • Select Symphonies no. 6
      • View record and notice FRBR hierarchy
  • Things to pay attention to now
    • Notice the 001 and 004 tags
    • Notice the 999 tag
beethoven example
Beethoven Example

Search for

Beethoven

beethoven example15
Beethoven Example

Select 6th

Symphony.

(Could also

select

5 Beethoven

and then 6th

Symphony)

slide16

Beethoven Example

Result is a

FRBR Work

record.

(Expand tree

by clicking on

the plus sign)

slide17

Beethoven Example

Tree is

expanded to

display FRBR

Expressions.

The 004 tag

is the 001 of

the Work.

slide18

Beethoven Example

Expanding

the tree again

displays the

FRBR

Manifestations.

vtls frbr features
VTLS FRBR Features
  • Single database can have FRBR and non-FRBR records
  • System is “aware” of record type and changes displays as needed
  • Display of FRBR records are in tree structure
  • Local level fields have values of W, E, and M to indicate type of FRBR record
  • 001 and 004 used as linking tags
frbr opac
FRBR OPAC
  • Screen captures of Virtua’s Web OPAC, iPortal, are presented to show user displays of a FRBR catalog.
frbr opac22
FRBR OPAC

Search

by title

frbr opac23
FRBR OPAC

Select 1st

entry in List

frbr opac24
FRBR OPAC

Result is a short

record display.

Click on FRBR

tree

frbr opac25
FRBR OPAC

Result is the

FRBR tree with

brief info from

Work and

Expressions

frbr opac26
FRBR OPAC

Expression has

been expanded

to display

brief info from

Manifestations

frbr opac27
FRBR OPAC

Manifestation

record with

one owning

institution

frbr opac28
FRBR OPAC

Manifestation

record with

several owning

institutions

slide30

Work to Work Links

  • “… when the modification of a work involves a significant degree of independent … effort, the result is … a new work.” FRBR, final report
slide31

Work to Work Links

  • Types of different works:
    • Paraphrases
    • Rewritings
    • Adaptations for children
    • Musical variations on a theme
    • Abstracts, digests, and summaries
    • Adaptations from one form to another
        • Dramatizations (book to movie, play, etc.)
        • One graphic art medium to another
slide32

Super Work

  • A Super (or Supra) Work is a record that has other works (sub works) related to it
    • For example, the novel Beau Geste by P. C. Wren is one FRBR Work, and the several movies that have been created from the book are also separate FRBR Works. The Super work is an artificial creation that links all these related works together
slide33

Super Work

The Work

record for the

“Super”Work

of Beau Geste

slide34

Super Work

The tree

expanded to

show the

“sub works”

of the Super

Work

The Work

record for

the novel

(a sub work

of the Super

Work)

slide35

Super Work

The Work

record for the

1939 movie

(a sub work

of the Super

Work)

slide36

Super Work

The tree

expanded to

show the

Expression

and

Manifestations

of the 1939

movie

The

Expression

record for the

1939 movie

slide37

Super Work

The 1926

movie also has

two other

sub works:

music and

a Program

book

The

Work record

for the 1926

movie

slide38

Super Work

The tree

expanded

to show the

Manifestations

of the 1926

movie

The

Expression

record

for the 1926

movie

slide39

Super Work

The tree

expanded

to show the

Expression and

Manifestations

for the music

(a sub work)

of the 1926

movie

The

Manifestation

record

for the music

of the1926

movie

slide41

Circulation Requests

  • With a traditional system when you had multiple editions of a particular title (Work) you had to place individual requests on each edition (Manifestation).
  • With a FRBR system, you only have to place a request at the Work or Expression level, and ANY item of ANY Manifestation will satisfy the request.
slide42

Circulation Requests

Search for

the title

Action and

Passion by

Percival

Christopher

Wren

slide43

Circulation Requests

The Work

Record for

Action and

Passion

slide44

Circulation Requests

The

Expression

record with

the tree

Expanded to

show multiple

Manifestations.

You do not

care which

Manifestation

you read.

You just

want one.

slide45

Circulation Requests

The

Manifestations

in the next

few examples

show that

items exist in

different

locations.

This location is

the Main

Library.

slide46

Circulation Requests

This location

is the

Mann Library

slide47

Circulation Requests

This copy is

in Green

Valley

slide48

Circulation Requests

This

Manifestation

has two

copies: One

each in the

Main and

Law Libraries.

slide49

Circulation Requests

Instead of

placing a Bib

level request

at each

Manifestation,

place the

request on

the

Expression.

slide50

Circulation Requests

The Request

“wizard” is

invoked by

clicking on

the “Add”

button

slide51

Circulation Requests

Once the

request is

made, the

next time a

qualifying

item is

encountered,

it will be

trapped. In

this example,

an item is

being

discharged

from

circulation.

slide52

Circulation Requests

The

Circulation

module

responds to

the Check-in

with a

message that

the item has

a request

on it

slide53

Circulation Requests

The

Check-in

window

displays the

items that

have been

checked in

and their

status

slide54

Circulation Requests

To verify

that this is

the right

item (in our

FRBR request

example) we

can either

search for

Action and

Passion or

right click

and select to

view the

item record

slide55

Circulation Requests

The trapped

item is for

the title

Action and

Passion

slide56

Circulation Requests

We can look

at the FRBR

bibliographic

information

by right

clicking and

selecting

Bibliographic

Record

slide57

Circulation Requests

The FBBR

tree for

Action and

Passion with

the

Manifestation

of the

trapped item

frbr serials cr example
FRBR Serials (CR) Example
  • Atlantic Monthly
    • Five Title Changes (1857, 1932, 1971, 1981, 1993)
    • 11 Bibliographic Records in OCLC
frbr serials cr example60
FRBR Serials (CR) Example

Each of the

five basic

titles in the

“family” of

Atlantic

Monthly

is a

“sub-work”

under the

Super Work

frbr serials cr example61
FRBR Serials (CR) Example

Each work has

a linking

field such as

Continues

or…

slide63

FRBR Serials (CR) Example

The

Expression

level record

has fields

for

frequency

slide64

FRBR Serials (CR) Example

This is the

Manifestation

level record

which has

information

such as title,

page, imprint,

LCCN and ISSN

slide65

FRBR Serials (CR) Example

This is another

Manifestation.

In this case, the

microform

edition of the

latest

incarnation of

Atlantic

Monthly is

shown.

slide66

FRBR Serials (CR) Example

The fully expanded

tree shows

all of the Works,

Expressions and

Manifestations.

There are 11

Manifestations

which match the

11 original

OCLC records.

slide67

FRBR Serials (CR) Example

What

happens

when you

search for

Atlantic

Monthly?

slide68

FRBR Serials (CR) Example

The result set is a list

of the records;

Works and

Manifestations

which have the

title Atlantic

Monthly in them.

Selecting the

second entry,

a Manifestation,

results in…

slide69

FRBR Serials (CR) Example

The tree expanded

to the selected

record

slide70

FRBR Serials (CR) Example

Notice that at

some point

Atlantic

Monthly

absorbed two

other titles.

If you click

on the

hyperlink for

Putnam’s

magazine…

slide71

FRBR Serials (CR) Example

You get a result set of

records that have the title

of Putnam’s magazine

in them.

If you select the last

entry on this screen…

slide72

FRBR Serials (CR) Example

You get a FRBR tree

that displays the

“family” of records

for Putnam’s

magazine.

slide73

FRBR Serials (CR) Example

Selecting any of the

Works displays the

information about

that Work and

expanding the

entries will display

the Expressions

and Manifestations.

slide74

FRBR Serials (CR) Example

If we had

clicked on the

hyperlink for

Galaxy

instead of

Putnam’s

magazine…

slide75

FRBR Serials (CR) Example

Again, a result

set since more

than one record

has the title,

Galaxy, in it.

Selecting the

third record…

slide76

FRBR Serials (CR) Example

Results

in a

non-FRBR

record

since

there is

only one

record

for the

title,

Galaxy.

There is

no

“family”

of

records.

questions concerns
Questions/Concerns
  • Linking fields
  • Need clearer, fuller definitions of WEM
  • Need to look at MARC tag mappings
  • Rules of Super Works
  • Can FRBR work with CR?
slide78

FRBR Benefits

  • For Librarians
    • Collocation
        • Better organization to catalog
    • Easier cataloging
    • Reduction in cataloging load
        • Work only cataloged once for all expressions under it
        • Expression only cataloged once for all manifestations under it
        • Item cataloging (already simple) remains the same
frbr benefits
FRBR Benefits

Greater Benefits For Users

  • Collocation
  • Easier to find information
    • Single search retrieves all related materials even if cataloged in different languages or different subject headings
  • Easier to see the different expressions of a single work
    • Gives a better global picture
  • Easier to find all manifestations
slide80

FRBR Benefits

  • Place holds at “Work” or “Expression” level rather than only at manifestation level
  • Better understanding of relationships between related works or expressions
virtua frbr at ucl
Virtua FRBR at UCL
  • Universite Catholique De Louvain (UCL) has been a Virtua FRBR customer since December of 2003
  • UCL moved to a consortium environment in April of 2006
ucl feedback on frbr
UCL feedback on FRBR
  • What UCL “likes” about FRBR
    • “For the first time we have the ability for a ‘global’ representation of an ‘intellectual’ or ‘artistic’ universe” (English translation of a thought in French)
    • “Collocation is tremendous”
    • “Visualization of the content by the end user”
    • “Accessibility to ‘big’ works like ‘Bible’”
      • “Very interesting for works of philosophers, great writers, and so on”
    • “Ability to extract FRBR records in a non FRBR format … for exchange of data”
    • “Structural relationships from work to work”
ucl feedback on frbr83
UCL feedback on FRBR
  • What UCL “doesn’t like” so much
    • “Difficulty” in getting precise information concerning different electronic ‘format’
      • “This is linked to the fact that Virtua/FRBR is MARC based and must live with the limitations of MARC”
    • “No way, at present, to identify a FRBR record in the index entries at the point of display”
      • VTLS comment : We think that this can be fixed.
advantages of frbr for ucl
Advantages of FRBR (for UCL)
  • FRBR is opening the road to
    • “New methods for cataloging”
    • “Analyzing deeply notion of ‘seriality’ and dynamic structure of electronic resources”
    • “New model for authority data”
    • “New model for subject authorities, thesauri, subject classification (facets)”
conclusion mood at ucl
Conclusion – Mood at UCL?
  • Overall : Quite happy with FRBR implementation
  • After three full years of experience they will never return to the old catalog
  • All new institutions joining the consortium are required to embrace the FRBR implementation – so there is no further debate about a mixed environement.
frbr ucl catalog other examples
FRBR – UCL Catalog Other Examples
  • Other searches to try
    • Title search: Also sprach Zarathustra
      • Take first entry on the title list
    • Title search: Chanson de Roland
      • Click to next set and select entry with 13 hits; click on 13th record
    • Title search: Communauté apostolique
      • Click on first entry
    • Author search: Zola, Emile
      • Take entry Zola, Emile, 1840-1902 Germinal

http://bib.sipr.ucl.ac.be/cgi-bin/gw_48_0_1f/chameleon?skin=wboreal

slide87

FRBR Preparation

  • Library Task List
    • Read FRBR documentation
    • Study FRBR implementations to see benefits for library
    • If there is interest, start a FRBR program
    • Have VTLS run “Virtua FRBR Analysis Program” to determine what percentage of database records are good FRBR candidates
      • General results: 5-18 % range
slide88

FRBR Preparation

  • Library Task List
    • Make purchasing decision for FRBR
    • Schedule one day FRBR cataloging training
    • Automatically convert selected records to FRBR using Virtua programs
    • Check and correct auto conversion
    • Open FRBR catalog to public
    • Let the fun begin
    • Live happily ever after!!
slide89
FRBR
  • For further information or a copy of this presentation, please send an email to:
  • Jack Bazuzi: bazuzij@vtlseurope.com
  • Vinod Chachra: chachrav@vtls.com
  • John Espley:espleyj@vtls.com
  • For further information about VTLS, visit:
  • www.vtls.com