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西方文化的源頭. 董 崇 選 中興大學外文系教授 「懂更懂」學習英文網站負責人 網址: I. 何謂 「文化」?. 《 辭海 》 :人類社會由野蠻而至文明,其努力所 得之成績,表現於各方面者,為科學、 藝術、宗教、道德、法律、風俗、習慣 等,其綜合体,則謂之文化。 Culture : The ideas, customs, skills, arts, etc. of

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董 崇 選




I. 何謂 「文化」?
  • 《辭海》:人類社會由野蠻而至文明,其努力所




  • Culture: The ideas, customs, skills, arts, etc. of

a given people in a given period.

(Webster’s New World Dictionary, 1985)

  • 按:文者紋也,理也,質之對。文辭、文字、道



II. 何謂「西方文化」?
  • 西方有大西洋 (the Atlantic Ocean)


  • 西方文化以歐美文化為主
  • 今日其他各洲皆受西方文化之入侵、影響、與支配
III. 西方文化的源頭:
  • 時間:c. 850 B.C.? 與 c. 750 B.C.?
  • 地點:地中海 (the Mediterranean Sea) 四周
  • 民族:the Greeks and the Jews
  • 語言:Hellenic (古希腊語),Hebrew (古閃族語)
  • 文類:mythological (神話的),religious (宗教的)
  • 代表作:the Homeric epics (荷馬的史詩),

The Bible (聖經)

IV. 荷馬的史詩:
  • 作品:The Iliad (伊里亞德) &

The Odyssey (奧迪賽)

  • 內容:the Trojan War (c. 1200 B.C.)

for Ilios (Troy) or for Helen

Odysseus’ homeward wanderings

  • 趣事:a. The Golden Apple: “To the fairest”

Peleus & Thetis, Eris (Discord)

Hera, Athena, Aphrodite

Zeus, Paris, Helen, Menelaus, Agamemnon

IV. 荷馬的史詩:
  • 趣事:b. Achilles’ Anger:

Agamemnon, Chryseis, Apollo

Briseis, Achilles, Patroclus,

Hector, Priam

  • c. The Escape from Sirens:

Odysseus and his men, the Sirens

Filling ears with beeswax, tying to the mast

  • d. The Chaste Penelope:

50 suitors, weaving a shroud,

Telemachus, Odysseus’ bow

v the bible
V. 聖經 (The Bible):
  • 包括:the Old Testament,

the New Testament (& the Apocrypha)

  • 舊約:共 39 Books (篇) in 6 groups (類)

written originally in Hebrew:

History, Prophetic Books, Lyric Poetry

Drama, Wisdom Literature, Tales

  • 故事:Genesis: the creation of the world and

man, the fall of Adam and Eve,

Noah’s flood, the Tower of Babel

v the bible15
V. 聖經 (The Bible):
  • Exodus: the escape by the Jews from their bondage in

Egypt, led by Moses, crossing the Red Sea,

wandering 40 years in the Sinai wilderness,

reaching Canaan.

  • “The Book of Job” (drama): the problem of evil.

Satan, God, Job, the Voice out of the Whirlwind

theodicy (神義論)

  • “Jonah and the Whale” (tale):

Jehovah wanted the prophet to preach in Nineveh.

Rebelliousness & selfishness;

universality & mercifulness of God.

VI. 二源 即 二元:
  • The Hellenic TraditionThe Hebraic Tradition


Mythological culture Religious culture

Polytheistic 多神 Monotheistic 單神

Humanism 人文主義Theism 神文主義

Hedonism 享樂 Asceticism 禁慾

For this world 今生 For the other world 來世

Secular life 世俗生話Divine life 神明生活

Id (抑德) & Ego (本我) Super-ego (超我)

VII. 至今的影響:
  • 建築、雕刻:
  • 繪畫、音樂:
  • 戲劇、文學、電影:
  • 日常生活:
  • It’s a choice between Scylla and Charybdis.
  • We are David and Jonathan.