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Crossing Actuated Intersections. Adult Pedestrians who are Blind and Accessible Pedestrian Signals (APSs). Hope Yasuhara Hunter College. Actuated Intersections. Present a challenge to cross. Present a challenge to teach. Figure 1. Figure 2. Accessible Pedestrian Signals (APSs).

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crossing actuated intersections

Crossing Actuated Intersections

Adult Pedestrians who are Blind and Accessible Pedestrian Signals (APSs)

Hope Yasuhara

Hunter College

actuated intersections
Actuated Intersections
  • Present a challenge to cross.
  • Present a challenge to teach.

Figure 1

Figure 2

accessible pedestrian signals apss
Accessible Pedestrian Signals (APSs)
  • Provide audible or vibrotactile confirmation of traffic light cycles.
  • Indicate the onset of the walk signal.

Figure 3

Figure 4

crossing without an aps
Crossing without an APS

16 subjects who are blind were timed on

when they started and finished their crossing

at an actuated intersection without accompanying

APS:

  • On average, subjects waited longer (5 seconds) to begin crossings (Bentzen & Barlow 2003).
crossing without an aps1
Crossing without an APS

48 subjects who are blind were timed on when they started and finished their crossing at an actuated intersection without accompanying APS:

On average,

  • Only half of the crossings started during the flashing walk signal.
  • Subjects finished crossing after the lights had changed (26.9%).

(Barlow, Bentzen, & Bond 2005)

Figure 5

Figure 6

crossing with an aps
On average,

Subjects initiated crossing 2 seconds faster than without APSs.

Fewer subjects ended crossing after lights had changed (13%).

(Scott, Barlow, Bentzen, Bond & Gubbe, 2008)

56 subjects who are blind were timed on when they started and finished their crossing at an actuated intersection with accompanying APS.

The addition of APSs at these intersections showed improvement in the timing of subjects’ crossings:

Crossing with an APS
before and after aps installation
Before and After APS Installation

Average Starting Delay

(Scott, Barlow, Bentzen, Bond & Gubbe, 2008)

before and after aps installation1
Before and After APS Installation

Average of People Starting to Cross during Flashing WALK Signal

(Scott, Barlow, Bentzen, Bond & Gubbe, 2008)

use of pushbuttons
16 people who are blind in each of 2 cities were timed on when they started and finished their crossing at actuated intersections with APSs.

Some APSs required pushbutton use, and some had optional pushbuttons.

Results showed similar improvements in the timing of subjects’ crossing for both types of pushbuttons.

Subjects were able to locate and press the correct pushbutton on approximately 90% of trials.

(Scott, Barlow, Bentzen, Bond, & Gubbe, 2008)

Use of Pushbuttons
conclusion
Conclusion

Research shows that crossing with an APS:

  • Enables people to initiate crosses sooner.
  • Enables people to finish the crossing before the light changes.
references
References

Barlow, J. M., Bentzen, B. L., Bond, T., & Gubbe, D. (2006). Accessible pedestrian signals: Effect on safety and independence of pedestrians who are blind. Transportation research board 85th annual meeting, 2006. Retrieved October 1, 2008, from Transportation Research Board database (AN01023177).

Barlow, J. M., Bentzen, B. L., & Bond, T. (2005). Blind pedestrians and the changing technology and geometry of signalized intersections: Safety, orientation, and independence. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 99(10).

Barlow, J. M., & Franck, L. (2005). Crossroads: Modern interactive intersections and accessible pedestrian signals. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 99(10).

Bentzen, B. L., & Barlow, J. M. (2003). Blind pedestrians at unfamiliar signalized intersections: Research on safety. 2nd Urban Street Symposium, Anaheim, California, July 28-30, 2003. Retrieved October 1, 2008, from http://www.urbanstreet.info/2nd_sym_proceedings/Volume%202/Bentzen.pdf.

Scott, A., Barlow, J. M., Bentzen, B. L., Bond, T., & Gubbe, D. (2008). Accessible pedestrian signals at complex intersections: Effects on blind pedestrians. Transportation Research Board 87th Annual Meeting, 2008. Retrieved October 1, 2008, from Transportation Research Board database (AN01088381).

Wall, R. S., Ashmead, D. H., Bentzen, B. L., & Barlow, J. (2004). Directional guidance from audible pedestrian signals for street crossing. Ergonomics, 47(12), 1318-1338. Retrieved September 23, 2008, from CINAHL database (AN2009399649).

references1
References

Figure 1. Photo by camera_obscura. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/musaeum/1818807223/

Figure 2. Photo by camera_obscura. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/musaeum/1819631904/http

Figure 3. Photo by xtopalopaquetl. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/xtop/74055220/

Figure 4. Photo by Jamison. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/jamison/2864257450/

Figure 5. Photo by TheTruthAbout… Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/thetruthabout/2680700509/

Figure 6. Photo by randomwire. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/randomwire/188875913/