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ARCHETYPES. by and Don L. F. Nilsen and Alleen Pace Nilsen . ARCHETYPES FROM CHILDREN’S LITERATURE. THE ROMANCE. The Romance “presents an idealized world, the black-and-white world of our desires, where good things are really good, and bad things are really bad.

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ARCHETYPES


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archetypes

ARCHETYPES

by and Don L. F. Nilsen

and Alleen Pace Nilsen

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the romance
THE ROMANCE

The Romance “presents an idealized world, the black-and-white world of our desires, where good things are really good, and bad things are really bad.

The Romance involves the Journey, and the Journey involves the Hero, the Villain, the Quest, the Sage, the Prohibition, the Sacrifice, the Dragon, the Treasure, and sometimes the rescue of the Maiden.

The epiphany (mountain top, tower, island, lighthouse, ladder, staircase, Jack’s beanstalk, Rapunzel’s hair, Indian rope trick etc.) connects Heaven and Earth” (Frye 203).

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the hero
THE HERO

In archetypal hero tales, the hero, usually a young person identified as having “special” qualities, sets out on a journey—either real or metaphorical.

The young person does not know what is in store and has probably not made a conscious decision to embark on “the quest.”

Nevertheless, when challenges come, the young hero meets and overcomes them, often making some kind of a sacrifice in exchange for wisdom. A common motif is that help will come from an unexpected source, perhaps from an older and wiser person or from a supernatural source.

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stages of the journey
STAGES OF THE JOURNEY

The stages of the journey (listed below) can be seen in many of the quest stories and can also be compared to one’s own life.

The Shadow Archetypes result from hyperbole, from developing the hero’s characteristics to such an extreme that they become a negative force as when the caregiver turns into the overprotective mother or the lover into the jealous controller preventing or marring the process of development.

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preparation for the journey
PREPARATION FOR THE JOURNEY

INNOCENT:

ARCHETYPE: Security, Acceptance, Disillusionment, Optimism

SHADOW ARCHETYPE: Denial, Repression, Blame

ORPHAN:

ARCHETYPE: Abandonment, Accepting Help, Against Authority

SHADOW: Cynicism, Victimization

WARRIOR:

ARCHETYPE: Fighting for Self, for Others, and for Ideals

SHADOW: Ruthlessness, Fighting to Win

CAREGIVER:

ARCHETYPE: Self-Sacrificing, “Tough Love,” Responsibility

SHADOW: Martyrdom, Guilt-Inducer

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the journey itself
THE JOURNEY ITSELF

SEEKER:

ARCHETYPE: Exploration, Experimentation

SHADOW: Perfectionism, Inability to Commit

DESTROYER:

ARCHETYPE: Confusion, Acceptance of Chaos, Letting Go

SHADOW: Destructiveness of Self and Others

LOVER:

ARCHETYPE: Following Love, Bonding, Committing

SHADOW: Envy, Fixation, Don Juanism

CREATOR:

ARCHETYPE: Visionary, Creator of Own Environment

SHADOW: Creators of Negative Situations

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the return from the journey
THE RETURN FROM THE JOURNEY
  • RULER:
    • ARCHETYPE: Responsibility for Self & Others, Good of Planet
    • SHADOW: Ogre, Tyrant
  • MAGICIAN:
    • ARCHETYPE: Making Dreams Come True
    • SHADOW: Turning Positives into Negatives
  • SAGE:
    • ARCHETYPE: Searching for Truth
    • SHADOW: Insensitivity, Critical Judgment
  • WISE FOOL:
    • ARCHETYPE: Living for Fun, Living in the Moment
    • SHADOW: Self-Indulgence, Gluttony, Sloth

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stage 1
STAGE 1

The Innocent

The Orphan

The Warrior

The Caregiver

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the innocent
THE INNOCENT

The Innocent moves from an unquestioning acceptance of the environment through experiencing disillusionment (fall) to a return to Paradise as a wise innocent.

EXAMPLES: Brady Bunch, Forrest Gump, Bambi, Gomez Adams, Leo the Late Bloomer, The Little Mermaid, Pinocchio

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the orphan
THE ORPHAN

The Orphan moves from accepting pain and loss through accepting the need for help to becoming independent and working with others.

EXAMPLES: Charlie Brown, Cinderella, Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz, Huckleberry Finn, Frankenstein’s Monster, Maniac McGee, Oedipus, Harry Potter, Peter Rabbit, Dorothy

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the warrior
THE WARRIOR

The Warrior moves from fighting and cheating simply for the sake of fighting to fighting within the rules for others and for what really matters on an unselfish level.

EXAMPLES: Batman, Lancelot, Ulysses, Joan of Arc, Jo in Little Women, Robin Hood, 3 Musketeers, Superman, Darth Vader

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the caregiver
THE CAREGIVER

The Caregiver moves from overcoming a conflict between one’s own needs and those of others through empowering others (tough love), to a willingness to help beyond immediate family (a global level).

EXAMPLES: Gepetto in Pinocchio, Holden Caulfield, The Giving Tree, Horton, “The Jewish Mother,” Mary Poppins, Pygmalion, Anne Sullivan, Mother Theresa,, The Velveteen Rabbit

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stage 2
STAGE 2

The Seeker

The Destroyer

The Lover

The Creator

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the seeker
THE SEEKER

The seeker moves from wandering aimlessly and trying out new things through trying to climb the ladder of success to looking for spiritual guidance.

EXAMPLES: Goldilocks, Indiana Jones, Don Juan, Leo the Late Bloomer, Luke Skywalker, Pinocchio

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the destroyer
THE DESTROYER

The Destroyer moves from confusion over experiencing pain and death of a loved one through accepting mortality to letting go of what is not important.

EXAMPLES: Beowulf, The Big Bad Wolf, Samson, The Terminator, Darth Vader Lord Voldemort,

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the lover or friend
THE LOVER OR FRIEND

The lover, friend, or sidekick is incomplete without the other lover, friend, or sidekick.

SHADOW EXAMPLES: Bathsheba, Delilah, Don Juan, Don Giovani, Byron’s Don Juan, Cassanova

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the creator
THE CREATOR

The Creator moves from daydreaming and imagining through knowing what is really important to allowing dreams to come true.

EXAMPLES: Kevin Costner in Field of Dreams, Frederick, The Purple Crayon

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stage 3
STAGE 3

The Ruler

The Magician

The Sage

The Wise Fool

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the ruler
THE RULER

The Ruler moves from taking responsibility for oneself through working with one’s own group or commnity to concern for society or the planet.

EXAMPLES: Aslan, King Arthur, Max in Where the Wild Things Are, Jupiter, Obi Wan Kenobee, The Lion King, Woden, Zeus

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the magician
THE MAGICIAN

The Magician moves from healing and noticing extrasensory experiences through acting on visions to connecting everything with everything else establishing mental, emotional, and spiritual connections.

EXAMPLES: Abuela, Gandalf, Genie, Hermione, Merlin, Mary Poppins, Harry Potter, Samantha in Bewitched, The three Witches in Macbeth, The Wizard of Oz

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the sage
THE SAGE

The Sage moves from searching for the truth through skepticism to an understanding of the complexity of truth.

EXAMPLES: the professor in Gilligan’s Island, Jimminy Cricket, Dumbledore,The Fairy Godmother, Galdalf, Luke Skywalker, Yoda

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the wise fool trickster
THE WISE FOOL/TRICKSTER

The Wise Fool moves from treating life as a game through using cleverness to trick others to living life one day at a time and enjoying each special moment.

EXAMPLES: Anansi the Spider, The Cat in the Hat, Coyote, Ferdinand, Forest Gump, The Hare in the Tortoise and Hare Race, Huckleberry Finn, Raven, Tom Sawyer, Sawyer on Lost, Schererazade, The Wizard of Oz

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archetype relationships
ARCHETYPE RELATIONSHIPS

Creator and Destroyer

Eiron and Alazon

Fool and Wise Fool

Hero and Anti-Hero

Innocent and Orphan

Junex and Senex in “Comedy of Manners”

Sage and Magician

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identify the archetypes
IDENTIFY THE ARCHETYPES

In the following slides, place the examples into various archetypes, and explain what evidence you used to make your choices.

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male examples
MALE EXAMPLES

Woody Allen

King Arthur

Aslan in The Lion, the Witch & the Wardrobe

Charlie Chaplin

Jesus Christ

Falstaff

Gandolf in Lord of the Rings

Obi Wan Kenobi

Radar O’Reilly on M*A*S*H

Samuel Pickwick

The Wizard of Oz

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female examples
FEMALE EXAMPLES

Alice in Wonderland

Edith Bunker

Cinderella

Cleopatra

Hera or Juno

Joan of Arc

Moll Flanders

Nora in The Doll’s House

Three Witches in Macbeth

Tinkerbell in Peter Pan

Virgin Mary and Queen Elizabeth

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child examples
!CHILD EXAMPLES

David Copperfield

Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz

Huckleberry Finn

Little Red Riding Hood

Peter Pan

Pinocchio

Tiny Tim

Tom Thumb

Winnie the Pooh

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shadow examples
!!SHADOW EXAMPLES

Bartleby the Scrivner (Melville)

Captain Ahab in Moby Dick

Dr. Frankenstein

Don Juan in Byron’s Don Juan

Willie Loman in Death of a Salesman

Gregor Samsa in The Metamorphosis

The Joker in Batman

Nurse Ratchet in One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest

Oedipus

Lord Voldemort

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web sites
!!!Web Sites:

Arizona English Teachers Association:

http://www.asu.edu/aeta/

Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Encyclopedia of 20th Century American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000: http://www.greenwood.com/catalog/OXHUMOR.aspx

Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Names and Naming in Young Adult Literature. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2007: http://www.scarecrowpress.com/

YA-Lit Web Quests, Jim Blasingame—Web Master: http://www.asu.edu/clas/english/englished/yalit/webquest.htm

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slide32
References:

Campbell, Joseph. The Portable Jung. New York, NY: Penguin, 1971.

Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1957.

Jung, Carl G. Four Archetypes: Mother, Rebirth, Spirit, Trickster. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959.

Nilsen, Alleen Pace Nilsen, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Encyclopedia of 20th Century American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Pearson, Carol S. Awakening the Heroes Within: Twelve Archetypes to Help Us Find Ourselves and Transform Our World. San Francisco, CAP Harper, 1991.

Pollack, Rachel. Complete Illustrated Guide to Tarot. New York, NY: Gramercy Books, 1999.

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