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Aquatic landscaping. Creating artificial ponds, cascades and waterfalls. Adds serenity or motion. Aquatic landscaping . Adds visual or auditory impact. Acts as mirror in landscape. Provides habitat for wildlife. Effective for dividing units of landscape.

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aquatic landscaping
Aquatic landscaping
  • Creating artificial ponds, cascades and waterfalls
  • Adds serenity or motion
  • Aquatic landscaping
  • Adds visual or auditory impact
  • Acts as mirror in landscape
  • Provides habitat for wildlife
  • Effective for dividing units of landscape
  • Blue or green lighting makes dramatic effects at night
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Aquatic landscaping
  • Designs range from formal to natural
  • Even-radius curves and straight lines more formal than uneven-radius curves
  • Designing water features in landscape
  • Cut-stone edges more formal than irregular stone edge
  • Usually a point of emphasis in landscape
  • Position in low area of landscape where easily viewed
  • Or conceal in landscape to create sense of discovery (remainder of landscape must lead viewer to water)
  • Water gardens need 4-6 hours of light (too much light will encourage growth of algae)
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Aquatic landscaping
  • Masonary (cement)
  • Costly and difficult to build
  • Selecting pool type
  • Custom-made to fit into landscape
  • Preformed plastic or fiberglass pools
  • Easily built and inexpensive
  • Limited in size and shape
  • Pools made with flexible liners
  • Somewhat difficult to construct but least expensive
  • Custom-made to fit into landscape
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Aquatic landscaping
  • Size, shape and depth determined by hole
  • Remove rocks and other objects that might puncture lining
  • Construction of flexible liner pool
  • Add layer of sand or clay to protect liner
  • Liner will snug up against sides of hole when filled
  • Depth should vary
  • If including fish, deepest part must >30” or else you’ll make ‘fishsicles’ in winter
  • Make 9-12” soil benches on perimeter for submerged plants
  • Cut rocks at edge should also be placed on ‘shelf’
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Aquatic landscaping
  • Side view of design
  • Construction of flexible liner pool
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Aquatic landscaping
  • Top view of actual design
  • Construction of flexible liner pool
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Aquatic landscaping
  • Size and placement of liner
  • Size formula: 2Depth+Length x 2Depth+Width
  • Construction of flexible liner pool
  • Liner stretched over hole, keeping taut along bottom
  • Hold liner in place with rocks along edge
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Aquatic landscaping
  • Emergent
  • Rooted in bottom but produce leaves at or above the water surface
  • Types of aquatic plants
  • Examples: Arrowhead, cattail, water lily
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Aquatic landscaping
  • Submergent
  • Rooted in bottom; leaves remain below the surface of the water
  • Types of aquatic plants
  • Examples: Elodea, Parrot’s feather (invasive)
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Aquatic landscaping
  • Floating plants
  • Freely float on surface of water
  • Types of aquatic plants
  • Examples: Duckweed, Azolla (fairy moss)
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Aquatic landscaping
  • Marginal plants
  • Grow well in very moist soil (e.g. margins of ponds)
  • Types of aquatic plants
  • Examples: Iris, marsh marigold, ferns
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Aquatic landscaping
  • Aquatic plants grow in nutrient-rich soils high in organic matter
  • Soil for aquatic plants
  • Decomposition of organic matter produce methane-rich substrate (smelly!)
  • Suggest use of chemical fertilizers
  • Plants can be rooted into bottom of pond or (more often) in pots or crates
  • Use 50-50 mix of garden soil and sand
  • Plants can be over wintered in cool place inside
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Aquatic landscaping
  • Largest problem with artificial ponds is preventing algal growth
  • Maintaining water quality
  • Incorporate floating plants to shade water surface
  • Select fish that feed on algae (e.g. grass carp); don’t add too many fish
  • Use a submerged pump and filter
  • Mechanical filters trap debris in mats
  • Biological filters use bacteria to breakdown ammonia and organic waste
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Aquatic landscaping
  • UV sterilizer used to kill algae pond
  • Incorporate bacteria and enzyme ‘clarifiers’
  • Maintaining water quality
  • Chemicals such as algaecides
  • Maintain oxygen levels with running water