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A Case Study of Application of TBLT to Teacher Training Presenters: Hiromasa Tanaka (firstname.lastname@example.org) Yoshifumi Fukada (email@example.com) Affiliation: Meisei university Address: 2-1-1 Hodokubo Hino-city Tokyo 191-8506 Japan
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Presenters: Hiromasa Tanaka (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Yoshifumi Fukada (email@example.com)
Affiliation: Meisei university
Address: 2-1-1 Hodokubo Hino-city Tokyo 191-8506 Japan
to teach English to students at risk.
(1) discussing how to manage their classes including the
size of class and teaching styles to use
(2) developing class curriculum/lesson plans
(3) peer monitoring and evaluation in rehearsals
Preparation period (About 2 months: Late May – July 27)
Preparation period (About 2 months: Late May – July 27)
Preparation period (About 2 months: Late May –August 1)
Preparation period (About 2 months: Late May – July 31)
* In the 4th MSSP, Meisei Ss started working with the int. volunteers on July 24.
(1) The flow of lessons:
“We talked about lesson plans. We tried not to have gaps between lessons. We tried creating lesson plans which are consistent with each others.” (Miki)
“…we talked a lot about the way of proceeding the lessons and the time allocation for each activity.” (Yoshihei)
(2) The content of class activities:
“Teaching materials / games we use in the class.” (Risa)
“The goal of the lessons and their contents. Rules of the lessons.” (Hiroto)
(3) Pedagogy to be used in their lessons:
“We discussed how we can give lucid explanations to students, or which points we should spend more time with when teaching a class.” (Risa)
“We discussed teaching techniques to entertain students, and to catch their attentions to the lessons.” (Yuka)
(1) About appropriate ways of talking / attitude as a teacher:
“You had better talk a little bit more friendly. Be more confident”
“Talk louder, with appropriate tempo/speed.” (Shigeyuki)
(2) About the pedagogy / teaching techniques used in the practice
“It’s better to include pattern practice more.”(Hiroto)
“The teaching should not be one-way, but interactive. Have more
conversations with students.”(Takeshi)
Type1: Covering main teacher’s insufficiency in teaching
experience and English skills/competence
Kenji (Main T.): (Writing on the blackboard) Oh, I forgot the spelling of `statue`. (puzzled face)
Noboru (T.A.): (Standing by the blackboard, he
immediately write the word down for him).
Yuta (S1): (Hesitating to answer a question from the main T.)
Yoshihei (T.A.): Ok, you can do it, Yuta!
Akiyoshi (T.A.1), Rie (T.A.2), Mami (T.A.3): (Give big
applause every time when students could write down a correct
answer on the board.)
concentrate on their study in the classroom
To make space for playing a game, the main T., all T.A.s, and some
Ss spontaneously moved desks and chairs to the wall.
S1: (He tells the main T.,Yoshihei that he cannot see the board with reflection of sun light)
Yoshihei (Main T.): Sorry, you cannot see the board with reflection of light.
Mutsumi (T.A.1): (Being attentive to the Main T./the S, she goes to the window to close a curtain)
S1: (He can see the board clearly, and starts concentrating on the class)
Yoshihei (T.A.1): (While doing an activity, he asks a question for a student
sitting next to him) Teacher, he (the S) created one question, but where should he write it down on the handout?
Hiromi (Main T.): (Checking on the answers of a practice quiz) S1, what’s the answer of this question?
S1: (Looking at the question, she tries but is having a trouble with getting the correct answer.
Yoshihei (T.A.1): (He, who was standing by the S1, comes to her and gives her some advice.)
S1: (With the support from Yoshihei, she got the correct answer.)
Realization of students’ diversity in a classroom:
“All students in a classroom are different. Some students have high English skills, but others don’t. Some students are very talkative and talk about things which are unrelated to class activities, but others are very quite. Every student is so much different…” (Serika: Questionnaire)
Realization of the way of dealing with the diversity:
“Because each student’s personality is different, I learned how to improve/elicit his/her good points. In fact, some students were very quiet the first two days, but they started to talk a lot with enthusiasm when I talked to them from my side. I felt so happy when their attitude changed.” (Nami: Questionnaire)
“Before calling on each student, I flung the whole class a question, and had them think the answer.” (Hiroto: Questionnaire)
“I explained each grammatical point not using grammatical terminologies.” (Yukiko: Questionnaire)
“I used oral approach (pattern practice) and some other techniques in my class.” (Naoto: Questionnaire)
“I learned that the words used in example sentences should be all common to Ss. I also learned that Ss won’t be able to understand terminologies such as be-verb and third-person, so I need to paraphrase them with other basic words. (Mutsumi: Questionnaire)
“I learned that praising on Ss leads them to get confidence / enthusiasm in learning English. I also learned that, even if our lessons did not proceed as we scheduled, we would be able to deal with it by preparing some extra class activities.” (Yukiko: Questionnaire)
“When I ask questions to Ss about pictures I show, I need to say, “What is this?”, not “Who is this?”” (Itsuko: Questionnaire)
“I could enrich my English vocabulary.” (Sayaka: Questionnaire)
“I learned why we write the word, “I” in a capital letter all the time.” (Serika: Questionnaire)
“I figured out the rules for the way of changing verbs into past tense or ing form.” (Sayaka: Questionnaire)
“I could increase the knowledge of prepositions.” (Yoshihei: Questionnaire)
“I learned a lot about articles.” (Yukiko: Questionnaire)
“I learned the rules of changing nouns into plural forms.” (Nanae: Questionnaire)
“I learned the significance of pronunciation. I hadn’t paid much attention to pronunciation, but I noticed its importance through the preparation of the lessons.” (Naomi: Questionnaire)
“I learned the significance of pronunciation...” (Naoto: Questionnaire)
“I decided to participate in the project just because it sounded fun to teach classes, but now, I realized that how much responsibility I had as a teacher on the project. I felt I had to complete my tasks as a teacher steadily.” (Sayaka: Questionnaire)
“I could acquire strong courage to complete tasks on my own responsibility no matter how difficult they are to complete.” (Yukiko: Questionnaire)
(4) Sense of empathy: The ability to feel, think, act, and perceive the world from the other person’s point of view (Tamura, 1992)
“I noticed that if a teacher feels qualms about his/her own teaching, students also become uneasy. I felt I needed to be more confident in myself.” (Serika: Questionnaire)
“I became able to take things from the students’ viewpoints. I noticed that when I explain things in my lessons, I need to do it in the way my students can understand.” (Aya: Questionnaire)
teacher)’s class. Akiyoshi promised him to bring some takoyaki food
as a prize the last day of the class. However, Shota had a fever and
could not attend on the class the last day. When preparing for the
closing ceremony, Akiyoshi and other undergraduates in the team-
teaching group came to the faculty members and said that they would
like to hand over the takoyaki food and a diploma of MSSP to him.
Akiyoshi said, “Shota would be pleased if we bring him the takoyaki because he was very looking forward to eating them.”
When the faculty members agreed with the idea, they spontaneously
called the Shota’s mother and went to see him by train after the closing
“I found that if I take actions, things march up. I realized I also can do it. I found that there was something that I can do.” (Hiroto: Questionnaire)
“I got confidence in myself. I felt so happy when students learned things from my lessons. It was so nice to be able to contribute to the students.” (Nami: Questionnaire)
“Tsugumi (her team member) has changed. She is so much different, now. She grew up.” (Motoko: Fieldnotes)
Communication skills required to establish good
relationships with other team members:
“I became able to work on a project collaborating with other members.” (Hiromi: Questionnaire)
“I found that we can get various new ideas through the talks with other team members.” (Katsumi: Questionnaire)
“Each child is different, so we need to know each student’s character well. Through the contact with various types of children, I acquired good interaction skills. (Tatsuki: Questionnaire)
“I learned how to communicate with my students. By having a lot of conversations with them, they would trust and like us. Students would get confidence and also get enthusiasm by praising them. … Understanding each student’s personality, specialty, and interest would be the key to establish close relationships with students. Many children in their age are assertive. By listening to each student’s assertion, we would be able to get trust from them.” (Yukiko: Questionnaire)
The meisei university students had many opportunities to communicate with international volunteers invited from various countries in the process of preparing and teaching their lessons.