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Why Bake?. Literacy, Math, Science, Health, History www.homebaking.org Sharon Davis, FCS Education. From a Critical Science Perspective. Focus: “practical, recurring problems or concerns of the family” (Brown & Paolucci, 1979)

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why bake

Why Bake?

Literacy, Math, Science, Health, History


Sharon Davis, FCS Education

from a critical science perspective
From a Critical Science Perspective

Focus: “practical, recurring problems or concerns of the family”

(Brown & Paolucci, 1979)

“Recurring concerns are value-based problems that occur from generation to generation and are resolved through reflective judgment and action. (Montgomery, 1999)

Building Strong Families and Communities: A Critical Science Rationale for FCS.

Bette Montgomery and Sharon Davis, JOURNAL OF FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES January 2004. Vol 96, Issue 1, p52-56.

multiple fcs outcomes
Multiple FCS Outcomes
  • Academic foundations
  • Career, Community and Family

Connections Standards 1.2; 1.3

  • Consumer and Family Resources

Standards 2.1;2.2; 2.3; 2.4; 2.5

  • Consumer Services, 3.1; 3.5
  • Family Standard 6.2
  • Family & Community Services
  • Food Production and Services-- 8.1; 8.2; 8.7
  • Food Sciences, Dietetics and Nutrition-9.1, 9.3, 9.5-6
  • Hospitality, Tourism, Recreation
  • Human Development Standards 12.2; 12.3
  • Interpersonal Relationships-- 13.3; 13.5; 13.6
  • Nutrition and Wellness Standards 14.1 –14.5
  • Parenting 15.2; 15.3
fcs is school wellness partner
FCS is School Wellness Partner
  • Need: Tripling of adolescent obesity

Equal effort to tobacco/alcohol/drug ed?

2% or less meet Dietary Guidance

  • Faculty: “We can’t move ALL the needles!” (My school faculty, 2006)
  • Need: integrated food and nutrition lessons, K-12; teacher in-services
  • Community Service Partners needed
model school wellness policies include
Model School Wellness Policies include:

Nutrition Education and Promotion. _______________ School District aims to teach, encourage, and support healthy eating by students. Schools should provide nutrition education and engage in nutrition promotion that:

  • is offered at each grade level as part of a sequential, comprehensive, standards-based program designed to provides students with the knowledge and skills necessary to promote and protect their health;
  • is part of not only health education classes, but also classroom instruction in subjects such as math, science, language arts, social sciences, andelective subjects;
  • includes enjoyable, developmentally-appropriate, culturally-relevant, participatory activities, such as contests, promotions, taste testing, farm visits, and school gardens;
  • promotes fruits, vegetables, whole grain products, low-fat and fat-free dairy products, healthy food preparation methods, and health-enhancing nutrition practices;
  • emphasizes caloric balance between food intake and energy expenditure (physical activity/exercise);
  • links with school meal programs, other school foods, and nutrition-related community services;
  • teaches media literacy with an emphasis on food marketing; and
  • includes training for teachers and other staff.

More at: www.schoolwellnesspolicies.org

childhood obesity and overweight
Childhood Obesity and Overweight

“It starts from home. Every child should learn to cook…it sends the right kind of ramifications through the family. By the time these guys get to 14-16 years they know how to look after themselves and eat well…”

The Press Association Limited. Home News. June 22, 2005

How many parents can teach their

children to cook? 25-30%? Less?

FCS=Essential Culinary Experience

top chef urges children to sharpen cookery skills
Top Chef Urges Children toSharpen Cookery Skills

“Messages need to be made earlier in life. (Preventing obesity) starts from home. It’s great to see 10-year olds cooking. It sends the right kind of ramifications through the family, making sure they understand what they are eating and knowing how to do it at the same time.”

“Every child should learn how to cook and we need to keep banging on about the basics and not get carried away with the frills.”

The Press Association Ltd. June 22.2005 www.eatwell.gov.uk

Top Chef Gordon Ramsay, British Food Standards Agency (FSA)

great british food debate
Predict half the population could be obese in 25 years—1 million children in a decade.

January 22, 2008: Reuters.com

“Cookery” classes will now be compulsory in secondary schools

800 cookery teachers to be trained over next three years

All schools to offer by 2011

11-14 year olds receive one hour per week in schools.

Schools Secretary Ed Balls:

“We want children to be able to cook simple, healthy recipes.”

Prue Leith, new head of program to improve school meals in England:

“If we had done this 30 years ago, we might not have the crisis we have today.”

Campaign leader: Chef James Olivier

“It’s of the utmost importance that all kids learn to cook good food from scratch and shop well.”

Great British Food Debate
in the u s chefs and fcs lead
In the U.S., Chefs and FCS lead
  • "Cooking With the CHEFS (Clemson University Healthy Eating and Food Specialists)" program provides its participants with quick and easy recipes that appeal to the entire family, even younger children.
  • This unique, hands-on program allows participants to work in the kitchen…If you want to learn how to prepare quick and healthy meals that will please the whole family, then "Cooking With the CHEFS" is the program for you!
  • Research being published, lab manual, 2008
  • www.clemson.edu/cookingwithachef
cooking with the c h e f s
Cooking with the C.H.E.F.S

Research-based, primary goal:

Promote healthy eating behaviors by teaching

  • Basic nutrition
  • Food safety
  • Food selection
  • Menu planning
  • Food-prep skills

Contact: Dr. Marge Condrasky

Phone: (864) 656-6554

Email: mcondra@clemson.edu

early evidence why teach youth to cook and bake
Early Evidence:Why Teach Youth to Cook and Bake?

“Research consistently shows that integrating nutrition and food education into the larger curriculum and providing children with hands-on cooking experiences changes what they are willing to eat.”

The Cookshop Program. Toni Liquori. Journal of Nutrition Education. Sept/Oct. 1998.

more studies needed but
More studies needed, but…

“Studies have shown that cooking skills lead to increased cooking frequency, improved knowledge, preferences, and self-efficacy toward and interest in cooking, and decreased food costs.”

Cooking Classes Outperform Cooking Demonstrations for College Sophomores. Levy, Joshua, MS; Auld, Garry, PhD. RD.

J Nutri Educ Behav. 2004:36:197-203.

involve adolescents in food prep
Involve adolescents in food prep

“Dietetics professionals should encourage parents to involve their adolescents in food-related tasks to help them develop the proficiencies they need as young adults to maintain a healthful diet.”

Larson,N, Story, M, Eisenberg, M, Neumark-Sztainer, D., 2006, Food preparation and purchasing roles among adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetics Association. 106(2), 211-219.

early interventions
Early Interventions

“Interventions occurring later in life require greater expenditures of effort, and require involvement of greater proportions of the system than is the case in earlier portions of the life span.”

Richard M. Lerner, Ph.D—Director

Institute for Children, Youth & Families, Michigan State U.

American Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences, Winter, 1995

why do people bake at home
Why do people bake at home?
  • Evokes strong emotional feelings and satisfaction (not as evident for cooking)
  • A way to show love for family, friends
  • Learning to bake from parent/grandparent creates emotional ties; desire to pass on
  • Important outlet for creative impulses, a talent
  • Pride is a powerful motivator
  • Strongest reason is emotional and relationship-related

Home Baking Association Annual Meeting

Land O’ Lakes 2003 Baking Trends Report

I am a home maker; or rather a "Domestic Engineer" as the newly updated lexicon glorifies us mere mortals to be, with two lovely kids. I love baking and churning out delicious stuff from the kitchen. Am not a very experimental eater, but seem to have a knack for experimental cooking!

Where: Gurgaon, New Deli, INDIA


When viewed: 3/01/08

maslow s hierarchy horton who s are you safe whole warm well
Maslow’s Hierarchy & Horton “Who’s…Are you safe…whole…warm…well?”

Source: http://www.ruralhealth.utas.edu.au/comm-ead/leadership/Maslow-Diagram.htm

convenience vs control
Convenience vs. Control

320,000 prepared foods+

Consumer concerns

Such as…

HFCS, sugars

Refined, “enriched”

Ingredient allergies

Boost wholegrains

Real fruits v. flavors, colors

Good fats, bad fats

“Locally made” or “green”


do it yourself v prepared for you
Do-It-Yourself v. Prepared for You
  • At-home prepared foods help us achieve guidelines for calcium, dietary fiber, iron and reductions in saturated fat. (USDA-ERS Bulletin 750, March, 1999. Lin, Guthrie, Frazao) www.econ.ag.gov)
  • “57% and 53% of people baking at home do so to use better quality ingredients or to make “healthier” baked goods, respectively

(Bertolli 1996 Survey; 1997 BH&G Consumer panel)

  • Did we mention the cost$$$$?
why bake no food skills fewer resources
Why Bake?No Food Skills=Fewer Resources
  • Expand culinary skills, employability

American Institute of Baking www.aibonline.org

Kansas State University Grain Science


  • Working parents need food prep partners to make meals and celebrations at home happen

Eat Together, Eat Better www.nutrition.wsu.edu

  • Richer communities from having local bakers

www.homebaking.org www.kswheat.com

baking is a career
Baking is a Career

American Institute of Baking –

www.aibonline.org Certified Baker

Bread Bakers Guild of America


Culinary Institute of America www.ciachef.edu

Johnson & Wales www.jwu.edu

Kansas State U., Grain Science

B.S. to Ph.D. in Baking, Milling and

Cereal Sciences


Retail Bakers of America—


baking is science
Baking is Science
  • NEW food allergies, heart health, “foodceuticals”
  • Ingredient functions
  • Temperature effects on starch,

yeast, liquids, dough, baking, staling

  • Techniques and Timing
  • Substitution Success
  • Problem solving
  • Nutrition and food sciences
  • Consumer science
baking is consumer science
Baking is Consumer Science
  • Sensory preferences
  • Adding value, quality
  • Cost vs. price point $$$
  • Packaging
  • Food labels


Nutrition Facts

Ingredient list

Health claims

  • Product Standards
  • Consumer Rights
baking is history hands on
Agriculture www.wheatfoods.org

Milling www.namamilliers.org

5,000+ years of world bread history

Personal, family bread traditions

U.S.—hoe cakes,“thirds” bread, sourdoughs

Lewis & Clark, Native cultures


Baking Events

Famine/bread wars

Shrove Tuesday Pancake Race (right)

Pillsbury Bake-Off

Coupe de Monde, Paris


2009 National Festival of Breads

Cindy Falk, cfalk@kswheat.com 785-539-0255

Baking is History Hands On
baking is high tech
Baking is…High Tech
  • Baking equipment—

scales, mixers, ovens, analysis

  • Explore reliable cyber sources
  • Apply computer skills
    • Analysis—Grains, nutrition, flour, meal, dough, product testing
    • Marketing
    • Consumer surveys and education
    • Digital photography—lab results and food styling
    • Food features for newspaper, magazine
    • Food labeling & research/FDA, USDA, HHS
baking is math
Baking is…Math
  • Determine temperatures for liquids, batters, doneness of products, storage
  • Weigh and measure ingredients, dough, batter
  • Calculate yield, net weight, Nutrition Facts label
  • Product cost and price point
  • Time use, efficiency
  • Consumer product acceptance surveys
the tipping point
The Tipping Point

Prepare Youth Educators as culinary educators to teach students hands-on food skills as an essential piece of the

school wellness policy.

Teaching young people hands-on food skills will change what and how they eat.

baking lends a humane hand
Baking Lends a Humane Hand

Student bakers benefit while baking for

  • Emergency Shelters—People and Pets

Bakers Lend a Humane Hand, www.homebaking.org

  • High Yield Bake Sales, www.homebaking.org

Great American Bake Sale/Share Our


Local fund raising --www.homebaking.org

  • Bake and Take Day—www.bakeandtakeday.org
  • Bake to teach others—peers, younger youth, local clubs, camps
  • Bake for Family Fun—www.homebaking.org

“The best service learning requires students to be actively involved in touching the lives of someone else as directly as possible.”

Principal, Tom Schmitz, 25-year teaching veteran

wanted experiential learning foods labs
WANTED: Experiential Learning Foods Labs

#1: Do it—Experience the activity.

#2: What happened—Share publicly the

results, reactions, observations.

#3: What’s important—Process by

discussing, looking at the experience,

analyzing and reflecting.

#4: So what—Generalize to connect the

experience to real-world examples.

#5: Now what—Apply what was learned

to a similar or different situation;

practice. (Critical Thinking used)

Source: University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. 1997.

book and bake

Older youth help younger

Gain functional literacy

Learn about a wide variety of foods

Apply culture, science, math

Build in etiquette

Strengthen cross-age relationships

Take home skills for family

Career skills

Collaborate with school media and library staff to teach ”the how-to and why read to children.”


Blueberries for Sal

Johnny Appleseed

Pancakes, Pancakes

Pie in the Sky

Pretzels by the Dozen

Pumpkin Runner

Walter the Baker

+Everybody Bakes Bread

+Stone Soup

+Two Old Potatoes

Great Resource:

The Michigan Team Nutrition Booklist.

FCS/MI Team Nutrition Bulletin E-2835.


Book and Bake
baking builds career skills
Baking Builds Career Skills
  • Learn work competencies, standards—http:/wdr.doleta.gov/SCANS/whatwork/whatwork.pdf

-- Project time management

    • Problem solving, creativity
    • Visualization, communication
    • Reading, comprehension, application
    • Team building
    • Cultural/social diversity
    • Technical skills, computers, equipment
  • Learn food handling, safety, storage
  • Marketing skills, customer preferences
  • Visit Retail Bakers of America SkillsUSA: www.rbanet.com

Book and Bake…PretzelsIngredients1 cup water2 T. sugar2 T. oil1 ½ tsp. salt3 cups flour (whole wheat, unbleached all purpose)1 pkg. active or fast acting yeastBaking soda, water, OR whole egg + waterKosher salt, sunflower kernels, sesame seeds, cinnamon sugarMix dough in bread machine “dough cycle”, OR, sealable bowl OR In a large zipper plastic bag.Refrigerate overnight OR shape after 20 minutes rest.Line pan(s) with parchment paper.On an oiled surface, make 4-8 long (36-inch) dough ropes.Make a large grin, pick up the ends and twist once. Lay ends over the bottom of the “grin.”Label pretzels with maker’s name on parchment paper.Cover dough for about 10-20 minutes.Whisk together: 1 large egg + 1 tablespoon cold waterOR 1 cup boiling water + 1 T. baking sodaBrush ONE of the mixtures over pretzels.Sprinkle with kosher salt, sesame seeds or chopped sunflower kernels, or cinnamon sugar mixture.Bake in preheated 400°F. oven,15-18 minutes.

bread with a twist
Bread with a Twist
  • Human resources…How did Walter use his own human resources? Ann? Walter Jr.?
  • Identify the economic problem Walter had when milk was lost.
  • Describe the type of worker Walter was.
  • List the ways the pretzel was different from the sweet rolls Walter made.
  • What food group are pretzels in? What are their nutrition benefits?
  • Could you make pretzels “whole grain?”
  • Where has the pretzel been marketed widely?
  • How much does a pretzel cost to make?
  • What do pretzels usually cost at the mall, a game or the airport?
  • Can you think of a new way or outlet you would market pretzels in our town?
  • What slogan would you use? Who would be your spokesperson?
  • To whom could you bake and take pretzels to as a thanks?

Resources @www.homebaking.orgResearch basedClassroom and youth testedWritten by FCS professionalsTest kitchens/food prosFCS Standards integrated

middle school to adults @www homebaking org
Middle school to adults @www.homebaking.org
  • Members’ links …test kitchens, youth activities, seasonal specials, Baking Labs , video clips
  • Ingredient Glossary
  • Baking Science
  • Standardized Recipes
  • Bakers Dozen DVDover 130 topics, 13 segments
  • Kids Baking…Learn about pizza!


  • Educator Resources…

National Award Lessons

Baking Activities for After school/summer groups

Power Points

  • Service Learning Bakers Lend a Humane Hand
food lab resources
Food Lab Resources
  • Bakers Dozen Ingredient lessons
  • Top Ten Tips for Baking w/ Kids
  • Fight BAC! (Food Safety)
  • Did You Wash ‘Em?
  • Kitchen Safety
  • Terms and Technique (glossary)
  • The Thrill of Skill—age appropriate kitchen tasks
  • References & Resource List
  • Member test kitchens
baker s dozen lessons d vd
Baker’s Dozen Lessons DVD
  • www.homebaking.org
  • NEW!

Baking for Success





baking labs wheat resources
Kansas Wheat Organizations

Cindy Falk, 785.539.0255


Partners w/ Home Baking Association

and Olathe High Schools,

Log on www.kswheat.com

Go to Educators tab

FCS Baking Labs

Fields of Gold (Preschool-K)

Exploring Kansas Crops (4-5th)

Also! Consumers tab and more

Baking Labs/Wheat Resources
baking labs include
Baking Labs Include
  • Education standards/outcomes
  • Terms and Techniques
  • Measurements and Substitutions
  • Critical Thinking Exercises
  • Ingredient Functions/Science
  • Power Points
    • Why Bake?
    • Wheat and Flour History-Field to Flour
    • Grain Foods & Nutrition
    • Ingredient Functions- Flour to Table
  • Stand alone labs and activity options
  • Community Service Learning
  • References & Resources
2008 baking food science course standards
2008 Baking & Food Science Course Standards
  • Developed in Kansas with Connie Nieman, Olathe North High School’s test program of Kansas Wheat/HBA Baking labs/KSDE
  • www.kswheat.com –Baking Labs
  • Course: Baking/Pastry Level 2
  • www.ksde.org
  • cniemanon@olatheschools.com
student tested
  • Connie Nieman, FACS teacher, test-site; contributor; standards

Olathe North High School

Kansas City Metro area

  • Funding:

Kansas Wheat Commission

  • Sharon Davis, FACS Education

Researched, prepared labs

lab tests
Lab Tests…
  • Comparing Flours…

flour is NOT just flour!

“They all look the same to me…”

  • English Muffin Bread lab
  • Leavening Logic…

Chemical and Yeast experiments

“Does it really matter which I use


  • Salt Savvy…Pita Bread Lab

“Why doesn’t our pita look like

the other kitchens?”

lab tests45
Lab Tests…
  • Yeast Science

Focaccia Bread

“WHAT is focaccia…my

Mother tried focaccia and

Did not like it!!”

  • Milk Bread

“Mrs. Nieman!! I think we are on the wrong line or something…What is scalding??”

“ I didn’t think Math and Science would be important in this class. Why do we have to measure, take temperatures and figure percentages?”

lab tests46
Lab Tests…
  • Fat Functions

Designer Scones

“What is a scone?

Why do we have to try all

These weird foods?”

  • Cookie Science

Thin, Puffy, Crisp


“The school makes crispy, I like chewy…”

baking lab outcomes @ olathe
Baking Lab Outcomes @ Olathe
  • Sanitation and safety
  • Baking science
  • Ingredient functions
  • Use of a variety of flours and grains
  • How to scale ingredients for measurement
  • Importance of temperatures
  • Team work
  • Evaluation of quality
  • Baking vocabulary terms
  • Problem solving
  • Importance of accuracy
  • Careers available in baking
  • Websites available
baking is business
Baking is Business

When is $.50 worth of ingredients…worth $5.50?

baking is art
Artisan shapes

Effective ads/labels

Adding value

Food styling

Egg wash, decorating

Connect with baking

pros and spokespersons

@ www.kswheat.com

Baking is…Art
dough sculpting
Dough Sculpting
  • Use good basic dough, frozen dough

or bread machine dough @ 80°F.

  • After punching, round dough, cover

allow “bench time” (10 minutes)

  • Cut, don’t tear dough,

use baker’s (bench) tool

  • Divide dough evenly—use a scale
  • Shape rapidly to prevent drying, over fermentation
  • Avoid excessive dusting flour; grease hands, counter
value added
  • Crescent (Flip ‘Ems) Rolls
  • Pretzels
  • Twisted Bread Sticks
  • Rosettes
  • Bunny, Tortoise
  • Angel
  • Braids
  • Wheat Sheaf
  • Turkey Centerpiece
see the sites
See the Sites

Alton Brown. Good Eats. www.altonbrown.com

Cooks Illustrated www.cooksillustrated.com

Cooks.com www.Cooks.com

Home Baking Association www.homebaking.org

International Food Information Council www.ific.org

Fight Bac! Partnership for Food Safety Education www.fightbac.org

American Egg Board www.aeb.org

Beef www.beef.orgwww.beefitswhatfordinner.org

Chocolate www.chocolateuse.org

Dairy www.3aday.orgwww.landolakes.com

Dry beans, legumes www.americanbean.org

Fruits and Veggies www.fruitsandveggiesmorematters.org

Grains and whole grains: www.wheatfoods.orgwww.wholegrainscouncil.orgwww.namamillers.org

Meat Poultry Nutrition http://www.meatpoultrynutrition.org/

Nuts www.nuthealth.org

Parchment, waxed paper tips www.reynoldskitchens.com

The Cook’s Thesaurus www.foodsubs.com

home baking association
ACH Foods

Argo Corn Starch

Fleischmann’s Yeast

Karo Corn Syrup

American Egg Board

Bob’s Red Mill Natural Foods

Cereal Food Processors

Chelsea Milling

Clabber Girl

ConAgra Eagle Mills All Purpose Ultra-fine Flour

Farmer Direct Foods, Inc.

Gold Medal Flour

Hodgson Mill, Inc.

House-Autry Mills, Inc.

ICL Performance Products, LP

King Arthur Flour Company

Land O’ Lakes, Inc.

Lesaffre Yeast Corporation

North American Millers’ Association

Rabbit Creek Mixes

Reynolds Consumer Products

Shawnee Milling Company

Stafford County Flour Mills Co.

Stone-Buhr Flour Company

The J.M. Smucker Company

Washington Wheat Commission

Associate Members

Kansas Wheat Commission

South Dakota Wheat Commission

The Sugar Association

Wheat Foods Council

Writer’s Guild Members

Nancy Baggett Mary Gunderson

Sarah Phillips Glenna Vance

Home Baking Association

Thank you!Gracias! Grazie!

Merci!Vielen Dank!

  • Because every child deserves a good food relationship…to know how to afford, prepare, share and enjoy nourishing foods.Sharon DavisFamily & Consumer SciencesHome Baking Association

Connie Nieman, FCS Olathe North H.S.