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Water Efficiency In The Home. Judy Adler, P.E. Pollution Prevention Assistance Division. Total = 72.5 gallons per capita per day. Typical Single Family Home Water Use Without Conservation. Typical Single Family Home Water Use With Conservation. Total = 49.6 gallons per capita per day.

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Water efficiency in the home l.jpg

Water Efficiency In The Home

Judy Adler, P.E.

Pollution Prevention Assistance Division


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Total = 72.5 gallons per capita per day

Typical Single Family Home Water Use Without Conservation


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Typical Single Family Home Water Use With Conservation

Total = 49.6 gallons per capita per day


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What factors affect water usage in the home?

  • Plumbing Fixtures

  • Household income

  • Cost of water & wastewater service

  • Occupancy rates

  • Age and Lifestyle of residents

  • Climate

  • Local Landscape

  • Water Habits

  • Awareness of the need to conserve water


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Energy Policy Act 1992

  • Effective January 1, 1994

  • Water efficiency plumbing standards

    Toilets 1.6 gpf

    Urinals 1.0 gpf

    Showerheads 2.5 gpm @ 80 psi

    Faucets 2.5 gpm @ 80 psi

  • 81 MGD water savings in ACF by 2010


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Economic analysis for my best friend’s toilet

  • Existing toilet = 5 gpf

  • Average 10 flushes per day

  • New toilet = 1.6 gpf (about $200 including installation)

  • Water savings = 12,410 gal/yr = 16.6 ccf

  • Cost savings @ $5/ccf = $83/year

    Payback =2.4 years


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Economic analysis for my toilet

  • Existing toilet = 3.5 gpf

  • Average 10 flushes per day

  • New toilet = 1.6 gpf (about $200 including installation)

  • Water savings = 6,935 gal/yr = 9.3 ccf

  • Cost savings @ $5/ccf = $47/year

    Payback =4.3 years


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More toilet talk………………..

An average of 20% of toilets leak

Toilet retrofits

  • displacement devices (saves 0.8 gpf)

  • early closing flappers (saves up to 50% per flush)

  • Toilet dams (saves 0.5 gpf)

  • Valve retrofit kits for flushometers (1.0 gpf)


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More toilet talk………………..

Consumer Reports

High Rated Toilets - October 2002

  • BriggsVacuity 4200 vacuum-assisted toilet - $220

  • Gerber Ultra Flushpressure-assisted toilet - $280

  • TotoCarlyle gravity toilet - $460

  • KohlerWellworth gravity toilet - $150

  • American StandardCadet gravity toilet - $170


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Urinals

  • New 1.0 gpf Urinals (compared to 1.5 to 5.0 gpf)

  • Waterless urinals

  • Flush-valve replacement kit (saves 1.0 gpf)

  • New 2.2/2.5 gpm showerheads save 35-50% of water use compared to older fixtures

  • Inexpensive (payback typically < 1.0 year)

Showerheads



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Faucets

  • Low-flow aerators

  • Metered valves

  • Sensor-activated faucets

  • Leak repair

  • Point-of-use hot water demand units


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Dishwashers

  • New dishwashers use about 7.0 gallons of water per load

  • Older dishwashers use up to 14 gallons per load

    Consumer Reports - August 2002

    High rated and moderately priced dishwashers

  • Kenmore (Sears) 1563(2) and 1552(2) $350-$450

  • GE Triton XL GSD6600G $499


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Clothes Washers

  • High efficiency clothes washers use about 27 gallons of water per load vs. 56 gallons per load for standard top loaders

  • High efficiency clothes washers use 40 – 70 % less energy

Consumer Reports – July 2002

Highest ranking – Kenmore Elite 4292 $1,450

High ranking and lower price – Kenmore 4204, Frigidaire Gallery, and GE Profile $750


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Behavioral Indoor Measures

  • Take a quick shower (save 20 gallons)

  • Collect water from faucet while you wait for hot water and use it to water plants

  • Compost food scraps instead of using garbage disposal


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Behavioral Indoor Measures

  • Don’t pre-rinse dishes except in cases of sticky food

  • Only run dishwasher and washing machine with full loads

  • Use short cycles on dishwasher and washing machine

  • If it’s yellow, let it mellow…..


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Indoor conservation incentives

  • Rebates for toilets, showerheads, washing machines

  • Free water conservation kits

  • Free audits and/or installation of low-flow devices

  • Retrofit on resale ordinances

  • Education Education!


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Success StorySanta Monica, California

  • Retrofit Upon Resale Ordinance requires installation of water-saving plumbing devices whenever any residential or commercial property is sold or transferred

  • $75 rebate for 1.6 gpf toilets

  • Water use surveys provide free indoor kits

  • Cost of program = $5.4 million

  • Cost savings of $9.5 million from avoided purchases of imported water and avoided wastewater treatment plant capacity


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Success StoryMassachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA)

  • Operation Watersense

  • Direct installation of water-saving devices

  • 58% participation rate

  • Installed low-flow fixtures in 348,871 households

  • MWRA’s water conservation program saved $1.4 – 1.9 million* in deferred water supply and treatment plant capacity

    *Includes savings from other conservation programs including leak detection and repair, education, improved metering, and rate structures


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Indoor Conservation Challenges

  • Low and declining water rates

  • Previous experience with poor products

  • Consumer apathy & ignorance

  • Rumors


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