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Towards a more peaceful world? Trends in armed conflict. Lecture at HEI, 22 March 2007 Course E 584 Topics in Peace Research Nils Petter Gleditsch Centre for the Study of Civil War (CSCW), International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO) & Department of Sociology & Political Science

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Towards a more peaceful world trends in armed conflict l.jpg

Towards a more peaceful world? Trends in armed conflict

Lecture at HEI, 22 March 2007Course E 584 Topics in Peace Research

Nils Petter Gleditsch

Centre for the Study of Civil War (CSCW),

International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO)

& Department of Sociology & Political Science

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)


The end of war l.jpg

The End of War

Norman Angell (1910): The Great Illusion

Gaddis (1987): The Long Peace

Mueller (1989): The Obsolescence of War

Mueller (2006): The Waning of War

No wars between developed countries during the Cold War

Remarkably few major international wars of any kind since World War II

The only traditional interstate war since 1975: Iran-Iraq

No major war between Israel and its neighbors since 1973

The remnants of war are largely crime


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War Is Not (Necessarily) Waning

Wallensteen (2006): Too early to tell

Prussian War is declining (the two World Wars were atypical)

No war between two Security Council members since the Korean War (1950– 53)

- and there were many proxy wars during the Cold War

War is waning between industrialized countries

- but industrialized countries are not lower in war participation

There are many regional wars (Middle East, Central Africa in the 1990s)

Many wars still have a global impact

When will we have peace between major powers: when we have cooperative and universalistic relations between major powers


War is not waning l.jpg

War Is Not Waning

Mearsheimer (1990): Back to the future

Huntington (1993): Clash of Civilizations

Gurr (1994): Surge of Ethnopolitical Conflict

- but also Gurr (2000), Ethnic warfare on the wane

Rice (1993): Wars of the third kind

Kaldor (1999): New wars

Marshall (1999): The Third World War

Sarkees, Wayman & Singer (2003): A Disturbing constancy of war

- different types of war peak at different times and must be examined together

- war shifts between regions (proxy wars)


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A look at the evidence

Number of wars

Number of battle deaths

Indirect deaths

Number of countries in war

Number of countries at war

Area affected by war

Non-state conflicts

One-sided conflicts

Indirect deaths

Terrorism

A longer time perspective

A very much longer time perspective

If war is waning – why?


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Armed Conflicts in 2005

Countries with conflict on their territory in 2005 (dark brown color), countries with conflict on their territory after the end of the Cold War (light brown color), and the geographical centre of the conflict (red circle). Source: Halvard Buhaug, on the basis of the Uppsala/PRIO conflict data, see www.prio.no/cscw/armedconflict.


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Armed conflicts, 1946–2005

Source: Harbom, Högbladh & Wallensteen (2006). For the data, see www.prio.no/cscw/armedconflict.


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Armed conflicts, 1946–2005

For the data, see Harbom, Högbladh & Wallensteen (2006) and www.prio.no/cscw/armedconflict. In this figure, the number of conflicts is normalized by the number of independent countries. Figure created by Lars Wilhelmsen.


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Wars, 1946–2005

Only conflicts with more than 1000 battle deaths in a single year. See Harbom, Högbladh & Wallensteen (2006) and www.prio.no/cscw/armedconflict. In this figure, too, the number of wars is normalized by the number of independent countries. Figure created by Lars Wilhelmsen.


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Probability of death in battle, 1900–2005 (%)

Data for the number of battle deaths (civilian and military) from the COW Project (1900–45) and from our own data (1946–2005) at www.prio.no/cscw/cross/battledeaths, cf. Lacina, Gleditsch & Russett (2006). The number of battle deaths have been divided by the world population in all independent countries for that year, based on data in Gleditsch & Ward (2006).


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Probability of death in battle, 1946–2005 (%)

Figure created by Lars Wilhelmsen. Data for the number of battle deaths (civilian and military) are from www.prio.no/cscw/cross/battledeaths, cf. Lacina & Gleditsch (2005). The number of battle deaths has been divided by the world population in all independent countries for that year, based on population data in Gleditsch & Ward (2006).


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The Iraq spike

Figure created by Lars Wilhelmsen. The data for the number of battle deaths (civilian and military) are from the same sources as the previous slide but the Lacina figures for Iraqi battle deaths have been replaced by the median estimate of a (somewhat controversial) article in The Lancet (Burnham et al., 2006).




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Casualties in state, non-state, andone-sided conflicts 2002–03

Kilde: Human Security Report.


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Genocide and politicide 1956–2001

The figures refer to the number of cases with serious human rights violations in a given year. The figure has been copied from Mack (2007) based on data from Harff (2003), updated to 2005. Please do not reproduce, since Mack (2007) is still in press. An earlier figure (to 2001) is available in Mack (2005).


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Genocide and politicide 1989–2004

Source: Eck & Hultman (2007). The figure for ’government’ in 1994 is 530,399 and is way above the ceiling for the figure.


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Democide in the twentieth century

The data are from Rummel (1994), updated on his website http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/.

Definitions:

Genocide: among other things, the killing of people by a government because of their indelible group membership (race, ethnicity, religion, language).

Politicide: the murder of any person or people by a government because of their politics or for political purposes.

Mass Murder: the indiscriminate killing of any person or people by a government.

Democide: The murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide, and mass murder.


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Democide by year, 1900–1987

Source: Rummel (1997): Table 23.1, http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.FIG23.1.GIF. Some of the democide estimates have subsequently been revised upwards. Including them might make the curve peak in a later year around the ‘Great Leap Forward’ in China, 1958–61), but would probably not affect the inverted U-shape. (This figure was added to the ppt presentation after the lecture.)


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Indirect deaths in selected conflicts in Africa

* Eritrea rebellion not included. Source: Lacina & Gleditsch (2005)


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Good news about international terrorism,number of episodes, 1982–2003

Source: Mack (2005), based on data from the US Department of State


Bad news about international terrorism number of deaths 1982 2003 l.jpg
Bad news about international terrorism,number of deaths 1982–2003

Source: Mack (2005), based on data from the US Department of State


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Military expenditure, 1985–2003

Source: Bonn International Center for Conversion, www.bicc.de


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More countries are involved in conflict

Figure created by Lars Wilhelmsen on the basis of www.prio.no/cscw/armedconflict .


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Average number of countries per conflict

Figure created by Lars Wilhelmsen on the basis of www.prio.no/cscw/armedconflict. Number of conflict participants for all conflicts divided by the number of on-going conflicts.


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A smaller share of countries havea conflict on their own territory

Figure created by Halvard Buhaug, based on the conflict locations reported by Buhaug & Gates (2002).


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The size of the conflict zones are declining

Computed by Lars Wilhelmsen, based on the circular conflict zones reported by Buhaug & Gates (2002).


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Great power wars 1500–2000

The frequency of great-power wars graphed by quarter centuries. From Levy, Walker & Edwards (2001), Figure 2 (20).


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War in Primitive Societies

  • Keeley (1996)

  • LeBlanc (2003)

  • Pinker (2007)

    - against the myth of ‘the peaceful savage’

Source: …


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Modern and primitive warfare

Scale: 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 1.2

Annual war deaths as % of population. Source: Keeley (1996: 89, Figure 6.1)


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Why was primitive warfare so deadly?

  • The prevalence of wars

  • Frequent low-casualty battles

  • High participation of tribesmen

  • High-frequency deadly raids

  • Customary killing of all adult males

  • Poor treatment of women and children

Source: Keeley (1996), ch. 6.


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How to account for the move to peace?

  • Liberalism: Spread of democracy, economic integration, and international organization

  • Realism: Lack of great-power confrontations

  • Structuralism: Hegemonic rule

  • Conflict resolution: More peacekeeping and peacemaking


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The growth of the liberal factors

-

Source for democracy: Marshall & Jaggers (2003), for trade/GDP: Gleditsch (2002), for IGOs: Pevehouse, Nordstrom & Warnke (2004)


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Peacemaking and peacekeeping

  • Conflict resolution

  • Peacekeeping

  • Peacemaking

    - but Luttwak: Give war a chance


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Trends in peacemaking

  • Preventing conflict onsets: A six-fold increase in UN preventive diplomacy missions (1  6) between 1990 and 2002

  • Ending ongoing conflicts: A five-fold increase in UN peacemaking missions (3  15) between 1989 and 2002

  • Preventing restarts: A Four-fold increase in UN peace operations (5  20) between 1987 and 1999

  • Support local actors: A twelve-fold increase in ‘Friends of the Secretary-General’ and other mechanisms (3  36) between 1989 and 2004

Source: Mack (2007: 3)


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Distinguishing between the explanations?

  • Realism, structuralism, and peacekeeping:

    Change occurs at 1989

    - number of conflicts

    - conflict zone

  • Liberalism:

    Longer-term change

    - battle deaths

    - great-power war


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Accounting for the increase in countries at war

  • Realism

    - more countries assuming regional power role

  • Structuralism

    - hegemon is commanding more countries into war

  • Liberalism

    - international norms pursued by more countries

  • Peacekeeping

    - peacekeeping wars



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Participants in the two recent Iraq conflicts

1990–91 (28 countries vs. 1)

USA, Canada, Honduras, Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Greece, Norway, Denmark, Senegal, Niger, Morocco, Kuwait, Egypt, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Australia

vs. Iraq

2003– (35 countries vs. 1, 13 old + 23 new)

USA, Dominican Republic, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, UK, Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Italy, Albania, Macedonia,Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Moldova, Rumania, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Norway, Denmark, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Republic of Korea, Japan, Philippines, Australia + Tonga

vs. Iraq


Problems in testing the general models l.jpg
Problems in testing the general models

  • - not all effects linear (in particular democracy, but perhaps economic interdependence and IGOs)

  • democracy where?

  • cannot predict annual changes very well

  • sensitive to single wars

  • but wars backed by major powers on opposite sides seem less likely – hence cautious optimism


References 1 l.jpg
References (1)

Angell, Normann, 1910. The Great Illusion: A Study of the Relation of Military Power in Nations to Their Economic and Social Advantage. London: Heinemann. Reissued in a new edition, same publisher, 1934. [Shorter version published 1909 as Europe’s Optical Illusion]

Buhaug, Halvard & Scott Gates, 2002. ‘The Geography of Civil War’, Journal of Peace Research 39(4): 417–433.

Burnham, Gilbert; Riyadh Lafta, Shannon Doocy & Les Roberts, 2006. ’Mortality after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq: A Cross-sectional Cluster Sample Survey’, Lancet 368(9545): 1421–1428.

Eck, Kristine & Lisa Hultman, 2007. ’One-Sided Violence against Civilians in War: Insights from New Fatality Data’, Journal of Peace Research 44(2),

in press.

Gaddis, John Lewis, 1987. The Long Peace: Inquiries into the History of the Cold War. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede, 2002. ’Expanded Trade and GDP Data’, Journal of Conflict Resolution 46(5): 712–724

Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede & Michael D. Ward, 2006. 'The Diffusion of Democracy and the International Context of Democratization', International Organization 60(4): 911–933

Gurr, Ted Robert, 1994. ‘Peoples against States – Ethnopolitical Conflict and the Changing World-System’, International Studies Quarterly 38(3):

347–377

Gurr, Ted Robert, 1994. ‘Ethnic Warfare on the Wane’, Foreign Affairs 79(3): 52–64

Harff, Barbara, 2003. ‘No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust? Assessing Risk of Genocide and Political Mass Murder since 1955’, American Political Science Review 97(1): 57–73

Harbom, Lotta; Stina Högbladh & Peter Wallensteen, 2006. 'Armed Conflict and Peace Agreements', Journal of Peace Research 43(5): 617–631.

Hewitt, Joe; Jon Wilkenfeld & Ted Gurr, eds, 2007. Peace and Conflict 2007. Boulder, CO: Paradigm, in press

Huntingon, Samuel P., 1993. ‘The Clash of Civilizations’, Foreign Affairs 72(3): 22–49

Kaldor, Mary, 1999. New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press

Keeley, Lawrence H., 1996. War before Civilization. New York: Oxford University Press

Lacina, Bethany & Nils Petter Gleditsch, 2005: 'Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths', European Journal of Population21(2–3): 145–166.

Lacina, Bethany; Nils Petter Gleditsch & Bruce Russett, 2006. 'The Declining Risk of Death in Battle', International Studies Quarterly 50(3): 673–680


References 2 l.jpg
References (2)

LeBlanc, Steven A., with Katherine E. Register, 2003. Constant Battles: The Myth of the Peaceful, Noble Savage. New York: St. Martin’s.

Levy, Jack S; Thomas C. Walker & Martin S. Edwards, 2001. ’Continuity and Change in the Evolution of Warfare’, in Zeev Maoz & Azar Gat, eds, War

in a Changing World. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press (15–48)

Luttwak, Edward, 1999. ‘Give War a Chance’, Foreign Affairs 78(4): 36–44

Mack, Andrew, ed., 2005. Human Security Report 2005. War and Peace in the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press, for Human Security Centre, University of British Columbia, www.humansecurityreport.org.

Mack, Andrew, ed., 2005. Human Security Brief 2006. New York: Oxford University Press, for Human Security Centre, University of British Columbia, www.humansecurityreport.org.

Mack, Andrew, 2007. Global Political Violence: Explaining the Post-Cold War Decline. Coping with Crisis. Working Paper Series. New York:

International Peace Academy, in press

Maoz, Zeev, 2001. ’Democratic Networks: Connecting National, Dyadic, and Systemic Levels of Analysis in the Study of Democracy and War’, in

Maoz & Gat, eds (143–182)

Maoz, Zeev & Azar Gat, eds, War in a Changing World. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Marshall, Monty G., 1999. Third World War: System, Process, and Conflict Dynamics. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield

Marshall, Monty G. & Keith Jaggers, 2003. Polity IV Project.http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/inscr/polity/.

Mearsheimer, John J., 1990. ‘Back to the Future: Instability in Europe After the Cold War’, International Security 15(1): 5–56

Mueller, John, 1989. Retreat from Doomsday.The Obsolescence of Major War. New York: Basic Books.

Mueller, John, 2004. The Remnants of War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press

Mueller, John, 2006. ‘Accounting for the Waning of Major War’, ch. 2 in Väyrynen, ed. (64–79)

Pevehouse, J., T. Nordstrom and K. Warnke, 2004. Intergovernmental Organizations, 1815-2000: A New Correlates of War Data Set.

http://cow2.la.psu.edu/COW2%20Data/IGOs/IGOv2-1.htm

Pinker. Steven, 2007. ’We’re Getting Nicer Every Day’, New Republic, 19 March

Rice, Edward E., 1993. Wars of the Third Kind: Conflict in Underdeveloped Countries. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press

Rummel, Rudolph J., 1994. Death by Government: Genocide and Mass Murder in the Twentieth Century. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction

Rummel, Rodolph J., 1997. Statistics of Democide. Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900. Charlottesville, VA: Center for National Security Law,

School of Law, University of Virginia & Transaction Publishers, Rutgers University, http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/NOTE5.HTM

Sarkees, Meredith R.; Frank W. Wayman & J. David Singer, 2003. ‘Inter-state, Intra-state, and Extra-state Wars: A Comprehensive Look at Their

Distribution over Time’, International Studies Quarterly 47(1): 49–70

Väyrynen, Raimo, ed., 2006. The Waning of Major War. Theories and Debates. London & New York: Routledge

Wallensteen, Peter, 2006, 2006. ‘Trends in Major War: Too Early for Waning’, ch. 3 in Väyrynen, ed.


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