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Agriculture. Origins of agriculture Hunters and gatherers 1 st agricultural revolution – domestication (10-12,000 years ago) plants, animals. C. Hearth areas 1. Vegetative Southeast Asia, West Africa South America 2. Seeds India / Fertile Crescent East China, Mesoamerica .

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slide1

Agriculture

  • Origins of agriculture
  • Hunters and gatherers
  • 1st agricultural revolution –

domestication (10-12,000 years ago)

plants, animals

slide2

C. Hearth areas

1. Vegetative

Southeast Asia, West Africa

South America

2. Seeds

India / Fertile Crescent

East China, Mesoamerica

slide5

II. Impact of domestication

  • Social
  • 1. Settlements
  • Social stratification
  • social evolution
  • 3. Writing
  • B. Economic
  • 1. Division of labor
  • Accumulation of material goods (wealth)
  • Wealth = need for security, army
slide6

Demographic

  • Population growth
  • Sanitation
  • Epidemics (proximity)
  • Diet
  • D. Environmental -
  • Deforestation
  • Desertification, salinization
  • More hours of labor
slide7

III. Second agricultural revolution

III. Second agricultural revolution

  • III. Second agricultural revolution
  • When
  • Climate
  • C. Innovations- techniques, technologies
  • D. Hearth area, diffusion
  • E. Impact

D

New techniques

New technologies

C. Hearth area, diffusion

D. Impact

slide8

IV. Third - "Green Revolution"

A. When

B. Innovations

C. Diffusion

C. Impact - Moral economy

slide10
V. Agriculture in LDCs

A. Shifting agr (swidden, slash and burn)

B. Pastoral nomadism

  • Intensive subsistence agr (rice)

mulberry, fish, rice system

D. Plantations

labor force in agriculture 2005
Labor Force in Agriculture, 2005

Fig. 10-3: A large proportion of workers in most LDCs are in agriculture, while only a small percentage of workers in MDCs are engaged in agriculture.

slide12
VI. Agr in MDCs
  • Mixed crop and livestock
  • Dairy farming

C. Grain farming

D. Livestock ranching

world corn production 2005
World Corn Production, 2005

Fig. 10-7: The U.S. accounts for about 40% of world corn (maize) production. China is the 2nd largest producer. Much of the corn in both countries is used for animal feed.

slide14

VII. Von Thunen Isolated State Model

  • distance and transport costs
  • Assumptions
  • Concentric zones
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
slide16

VII. Global food supply

  • A. Distribution
  • Actual v. relative scarcity
  • B. International policies
  • Agricultural monopolies
  • Biofuels
  • Political instability
  • Urbanization
  • Environmental issues
  • D. Local instability
undernourished proportion
Undernourished Proportion

Fig. 10-16: The proportion of under-nourished population has declined in most LDCs, but is much higher in sub-Saharan Africa than in other areas of the world.

farmland loss in maryland
Farmland Loss in Maryland

Fig. 10-1.1: Overlaps of soil quality, environmental & cultural features, and population growth may show areas of greatest threat of farmland loss in Maryland.

slide19

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/26/AR2008042602041_3.html?sid=ST2008042602333http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/26/AR2008042602041_3.html?sid=ST2008042602333

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