More than just Potato and Potahto: Differences in Educational Environments and Philosophies around the World Angie Jones, University of Central Florida John King, University of Central Florida
Objectives and Overview • Purpose • Survey (Pre-Study) • Advisor-Survivor
Purpose • To give an overview of educational philosophies from around the world to benefit general advisors in the areas of awareness, cultural programming, and developmental advising
THAILAND • Intro to Thai culture • History of Education
Thailand – Intro to Culture • Monarchy • Hierarchy • Buddhism
Thailand – Intro to Culture • Collectivism • Sanuk (fun) • Conflict Avoidance • Kreng Jai • Land of Smiles
Thailand – Intro to Culture • Polite smile for someone you barely know • Stiff smile “I should laugh at the joke though it’s not funny” • Evil ideas smile • I’m impressed smile • Lighten the mood smile • “Sorry I screwed up” smile • “My situation is so bad I might as well smile”
Thailand Rigid rules, red tape Exams more rigorous and graded more difficultly Lack of critical analysis Rote learning focused United States Many exceptions to rules Exams often include points for efforts, extra chances Critical analysis important Participatory learning Thailand vs. United States in Higher Ed
Thailand Strong mentoring between students Voicing non-popular opinion considered disrespectful Disagreeing with professor on academic subjects considered disrespectful Aware of social class and hierarchy United States No cultural precedence for peer mentorship Okay to voice non-popular opinion if provide a valid argument Okay to disagree with many professors on academic subjects Less aware of social class and hierarchy Thailand vs. United States in Higher Ed
SAUDI ARABIA • History of Education • General System of Education • Curriculum/Texts • Assessment • Culture in Education • Saudi Arabia vs. United States
Saudi Arabia – History of Education • Islam focused – goal of spreading and honoring Muslim values • Kuttab schools focusing on Islamic studies, reading, writing • Simple agrarian society oil rich (1938) education focus on resources • 1953 – Ministry of Education – centralized & modern reformed • 1970- Modern movement revisited: learn in a correct and comprehensive manner, Muslim values teaching and ideals, skills and knowledge to contribute to the development of the Saudi Arabian society ; economically, socially, and culturally
Saudi Arabia – History of Education • 1957: King Saud University founded; 1st class had 21 students • 1961: Women admitted as external students in Colleges or Arts and Administrative Sciences • Today: 50,000 students
Saudi Arabia – History of Education • 1970: 7000 students enrolled in colleges/universities • 2004: 200,000 students enrolled
System of Education • Three levels: • Primary (six grades; ages 6-12) • Intermediate (three grades; ages 12-15) • Secondary (three grades; ages 15-18) • School Hours 5 days a week, Saturday to Wednesday • Seven periods of instruction (45 minutes each) • 20 minutes for lunch • 30 minutes devoted to noon prayers • Four Main Authorities of Education: • Ministry of Education • Presidency of Girl’s education (Eliminated in 2003) • Ministry of Higher Education • General Organization on Technological Education & Vocational Training
Curriculum • Centralized & Academic: Developed by Ministry of Education • No flexibility of Electives • Teachers not involved in Curriculum Development • Specifics: • Primary: 9 hours a week for Arabic Lessons, 12 hours for other subjects • Intermediate: 8 hours/week for Arabic, 19 hours for other subjects • Secondary: Same as Intermediate; 11th – divided into science and arts (60% students must enter science track)
Texts • One textbook per grade: teachers must stick to book • Censored to not include sex or female images • Teacher outlines text on board: Note-taking ? • Ignores students needs and abilities • Rote learning (Islamic Tradition) – move toward critical thinking skills
Culture in Education • Respect and Dignity held high • Hospitality – guest first • Friendships – system of favors, rude to refuse help • Separation of grades from age seven • Voice opinion (sign of excellence) – loud voice marks a degree of seriousness
Culture in Education • Student can help friend answer teacher’s question • Not cheating – communal learning, sharing • Student/Teacher relationship formal • Relationship between students is close and non-competitive • People more important than rules (negotiation) • Casual dress not encouraged in classroom • Inappropriate to ask about female members of a man’s family
SAUDI ARABIA Rote Learning Focus Lessons do not conflict with Islamic principles Negotiation of grades More Individual Work Expressing opinion in loud voice symbol of learning Friendship/Family high importance Separation by gender UNITED STATES Critical Analysis Lessons usually no religious parameters Grades often non-negotiable Group Work focused Expressing opinion in loud voice symbol of aggression/disrespect Individuality/Self-Reliance No separation by gender Saudi Arabia vs. United States
Sources • Al-Faisal, T. (2006). Saudi Education in the Global Economy Vital. Speeches of the Day 4/15/06, 72 (1), 414-416 • Al-Saden, I.A (March 2000). Educational Assessment in Saudi Arabian Schools Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy, & Practice, 7(1), 143-156. • El-Sanabary, N. (1994). Female Education in Saudi Arabia and the reproduction of Gender Division, Gender & Education, 6(2). • Flaitz, J., Kosel, L. Kalaydijan, K., Miranda, A., Mitchell, D., Mohamed, A., Smith-Palinkas, B., York, J., Zollner, E. (2003). Understanding Your International Students: An Educational, Cultural and Linguistic Guide, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. • Miller-Rosser, K., Chapman, Y., & Francis, K. (2006). Historical, Cultural, and Contemporary Influences on the status of Women in Nursing in Saudi Arabia. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing; 11( 3),1-15. • Ministry of Education, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. www.moe.gov.sa. • Ministry of Education (Thailand). National Report 2004. International Conference on Education. Geneva: Sept 8-11 2004.
Sources (Continued) • Mulder, Niels. Inside Thai Society. Amsterdam: The Peppin Press, 1996. • Mulder, Niels. Thai Images: The Culture of the Public World. Chiang Mai: Silk Worm Books, 1997 • National Identity Board. Thailand into the 2000’s. Office of the Prime Minister (Kingdom of Thailand). Bangkok, 2000. • Prokop, Michaela(2003). Saudi Arabia: the politics of education, International Affairs, 79, 77-89. • Teay Shawyun and Krisda Tanchaisak. “A Better Understanding of the Core Values of Thai Undergraduates.” 2005. • www.into-asia.com • www.chula.ac.th • www.tu.ac.th
OUTWIT OUTPLAY SURVIVOR ADVISOR OUTLAST
In most schools in Jordan, can male and female students study in the same classroom?
In most schools in Jordan, can male and female students study in the same classroom? YES
What country has the famous university known as the Sorbonne? France
In Venezuela, can students leave the classroom without permission? NO
In Belarus, how many days per week must students attend class? Four Days Five Days Six Days
In Belarus, how many days per week must students attend class? (C) Six Days
In Turkey, is it acceptable for students to disagree with their professors in class?
In Turkey, is it acceptable for students to disagree with their professors in class? YES
In Romania, are there rules prohibiting the consumption of alcohol on college campuses?
In Romania, are there rules prohibiting the consumption of alcohol on college campuses? NO
Scenario: You do not have a lot of time to write a term paper that is due in 2 days. What did Korean students say they would do? (A) Ask a friend to write the paper for them. (B) Find an article and copy word for word or paraphrase. Spend many hours working on the term paper to submit something original. (D) Turn in the paper late.
Scenario: You do not have a lot of time to write a term paper that is due in 2 days. What did Korean students say they would do? (C) Spend many hours working on the term paper to submit something original.
In Japan, is there a daily cleaning period where students must clean the school (IN HIGH SCHOOL)?