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Mangroves in Bermuda. Walsingham Pond Caves and Mangroves. What is a mangrove swamp?. It is a forest of lush green vegetation blanketing the marshy low lying areas.

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Mangroves in bermuda l.jpg

Mangroves in Bermuda

Walsingham Pond

Caves and Mangroves


What is a mangrove swamp l.jpg
What is a mangrove swamp?

  • It is a forest of lush green vegetation blanketing the marshy low lying areas.

  • It is where trees grow that can tolerate the salinity of the water there, and live in with minimal soil. (halophilic=salt loving)

  • Includes 12 families of flowering plants and 50 species of tropical trees and shrubs.


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                              The oldest limestones (those lying closest to the underlying basalt) have become compacted and cemented with time to form durable rocks crossed in places by joints (long, regular vertical cracks). Thicknesses of limestones called beds (or strata) are separated from each other by horizontal surfaces called bedding planes. Rainwater is able to pass through the limestone down the joints and along the bedding planes: the limestone is permeable.


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Characteristics of Mangrove Trees oldest limestones (those lying closest to the underlying basalt) have become compacted and cemented with time to form durable rocks crossed in places by joints (long, regular vertical cracks). Thicknesses of limestones called beds (or strata) are separated from each other by horizontal surfaces called bedding planes. Rainwater is able to pass through the limestone down the joints and along the bedding planes: the limestone is permeable.

  • Basically are only two varieties of Mangrove on Bermuda. Bermuda has the most northerly mangroves. Because of cold and isolation, the two that grow are:

    ….red,(Rhizophora mangle) lives at the waters edge with its prop roots in the sea. Prop roots stabilize the tree in soft sediment.. Has smooth reddish bark, leaves are broad and smooth, seedlings retain on the tree. Excretes salt over the leaf surface and through shedding of older leaves.


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…Black, (Avicennia germinans) lives in the swampy zone between the sea and the land. Usually has significant development of peat soil trapped by the roots, this raises the level of the land. Has pneumatophores (small woody fingers which enable the roots to breathe).Leaves fairly narrow, dark green on top, and whitish underneath. Bark is dark, fissured and scaly, red within. Has glands on back of the leaves to excrete salt.


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Species found in the Mangroves: between the sea and the land. Usually has significant development of peat soil trapped by the roots, this raises the level of the land. Has pneumatophores (small woody fingers which enable the roots to breathe).Leaves fairly narrow, dark green on top, and whitish underneath. Bark is dark, fissured and scaly, red within. Has glands on back of the leaves to excrete salt.

  • Great Blue Herons

  • Snowy Egrets

  • Giant land crabs

  • Hermit crabs

  • Coffee bean snail

  • Land hermit

  • Mangrove crab


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Blue Hole between the sea and the land. Usually has significant development of peat soil trapped by the roots, this raises the level of the land. Has pneumatophores (small woody fingers which enable the roots to breathe).Leaves fairly narrow, dark green on top, and whitish underneath. Bark is dark, fissured and scaly, red within. Has glands on back of the leaves to excrete salt.

At

Walsingham


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Great Blue Heron between the sea and the land. Usually has significant development of peat soil trapped by the roots, this raises the level of the land. Has pneumatophores (small woody fingers which enable the roots to breathe).Leaves fairly narrow, dark green on top, and whitish underneath. Bark is dark, fissured and scaly, red within. Has glands on back of the leaves to excrete salt.


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Great Egret between the sea and the land. Usually has significant development of peat soil trapped by the roots, this raises the level of the land. Has pneumatophores (small woody fingers which enable the roots to breathe).Leaves fairly narrow, dark green on top, and whitish underneath. Bark is dark, fissured and scaly, red within. Has glands on back of the leaves to excrete salt.


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SNOWY EGRET between the sea and the land. Usually has significant development of peat soil trapped by the roots, this raises the level of the land. Has pneumatophores (small woody fingers which enable the roots to breathe).Leaves fairly narrow, dark green on top, and whitish underneath. Bark is dark, fissured and scaly, red within. Has glands on back of the leaves to excrete salt.


Favorite fish breeding site l.jpg
Favorite Fish Breeding Site between the sea and the land. Usually has significant development of peat soil trapped by the roots, this raises the level of the land. Has pneumatophores (small woody fingers which enable the roots to breathe).Leaves fairly narrow, dark green on top, and whitish underneath. Bark is dark, fissured and scaly, red within. Has glands on back of the leaves to excrete salt.

  • The water is calm.

  • The water is less saline than the ocean.

  • There is a good food supply derived from the mangrove leaves


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Economic Importance between the sea and the land. Usually has significant development of peat soil trapped by the roots, this raises the level of the land. Has pneumatophores (small woody fingers which enable the roots to breathe).Leaves fairly narrow, dark green on top, and whitish underneath. Bark is dark, fissured and scaly, red within. Has glands on back of the leaves to excrete salt.

  • Serve as sediment traps promoting aggradation and maintaining the quality of coastal waters.

  • Protect coastlines from erosion during storms.

  • Natural resource base for wood products.

  • Habitats for rare fauna.

  • Nurseries for commercially valuable crustaceans and fish.

  • Educational and tourism resources.


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The Mangrove as an Ecosystem between the sea and the land. Usually has significant development of peat soil trapped by the roots, this raises the level of the land. Has pneumatophores (small woody fingers which enable the roots to breathe).Leaves fairly narrow, dark green on top, and whitish underneath. Bark is dark, fissured and scaly, red within. Has glands on back of the leaves to excrete salt.

  • Provides food for supported organisms by dropping three tons of leaves per acre per year.

  • Leaves go through decomposition and become a primary food source for fungi and bacteria.

  • They in turn are fed upon by nematodes, worms and copepods.

  • Leaves give off tannic acid which discolors the water, but the leaves become more protein rich as they go through decomposition.


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Underwater labyrinth…. between the sea and the land. Usually has significant development of peat soil trapped by the roots, this raises the level of the land. Has pneumatophores (small woody fingers which enable the roots to breathe).Leaves fairly narrow, dark green on top, and whitish underneath. Bark is dark, fissured and scaly, red within. Has glands on back of the leaves to excrete salt.

  • Within the underwater root system, organisms are housed and protected including:

    tree oysters

    Sea squirts

    Anemones

    Cassiopeia jellyfish

    Juvenile fish

    Shrimp

    Lobsters


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In the mud below…. between the sea and the land. Usually has significant development of peat soil trapped by the roots, this raises the level of the land. Has pneumatophores (small woody fingers which enable the roots to breathe).Leaves fairly narrow, dark green on top, and whitish underneath. Bark is dark, fissured and scaly, red within. Has glands on back of the leaves to excrete salt.

  • Soft sediments house numerous worms, mollusks, crustaceans, and sea cucumbers.

  • Most of the animals in this area are drab in color compared to reef life forms, but the orange sponge and the miniature yellow sea squirt can easily be seen from the surface.


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Swimming in the Mangrove between the sea and the land. Usually has significant development of peat soil trapped by the roots, this raises the level of the land. Has pneumatophores (small woody fingers which enable the roots to breathe).Leaves fairly narrow, dark green on top, and whitish underneath. Bark is dark, fissured and scaly, red within. Has glands on back of the leaves to excrete salt.


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What type of mangrove tree is this? between the sea and the land. Usually has significant development of peat soil trapped by the roots, this raises the level of the land. Has pneumatophores (small woody fingers which enable the roots to breathe).Leaves fairly narrow, dark green on top, and whitish underneath. Bark is dark, fissured and scaly, red within. Has glands on back of the leaves to excrete salt.

  • Look at the root system.

  • Are these prop roots?

  • Are these pneumatophores?