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LINKAGES AND SYNERGIES OF REGIONAL AND GLOBAL EMISSION CONTROL Workshop of the UN/ECE Task Force on Integrated Assessme

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LINKAGES AND SYNERGIES OF REGIONAL AND GLOBAL EMISSION CONTROL Workshop of the UN/ECE Task Force on Integrated Assessme - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Cooperative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe. Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change. LINKAGES AND SYNERGIES OF REGIONAL AND GLOBAL EMISSION CONTROL

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Cooperative programme for monitoringand evaluation of the long-range transmissionof air pollutants in Europe

Convention on Long-rangeTransboundary Air Pollution

European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change

LINKAGES AND SYNERGIES OF REGIONAL AND GLOBAL EMISSION CONTROL

Workshop of the UN/ECE Task Force on Integrated Assessment Modelling

January 27-29, 2003

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

questions
Questions
  • What do we know about the linkages between air pollution and climate change?
  • How important are these linkages?
  • Which of these linkages could potentially influence rational policies to control emissions?
sessions
Sessions
  • Physical linkages through atmospheric chemistry
  • Physical linkages through environmental impacts
  • Concerns of national decision makers
  • Synergistic measures: Sectoral perspectives
  • Strategies to harness synergies
  • Economic instruments
  • Modelling approaches
linkages through atmospheric chemistry
Linkages through atmospheric chemistry
  • Also air pollutants exert climate impacts
  • Radiative forcing (RF) of ozone and PM are different in space and time from that of GHGs
  • Sulphates, nitrates and organic carbon have cooling effect and can reduce precipitation
  • Black carbon has positive forcing
  • Ozone has strong positive RF, better understood than that of aerosols
  • Methane influences RF and ozone
  • CC impacts on meteorology seem less relevant for the next two decades
linkages through environmental impacts
Linkages through environmental impacts

Numerous linkages exist, not all of them are yet fully understood.

  • CC might reduce ecosystems sensitivity to acidification
  • Increased N deposition increases C storage
  • Air pollution weakens plant growth, reduces C storage
  • Air pollution and CC affect biodiversity
synergies of multi objective strategies
Synergies of multi-objective strategies
  • Simultaneous emission controls result in multiple benefits.
  • Synergies may free resources.
  • Existing trade-offs should be considered.
  • Global CO2 stabilization will lead to lower SO2 emissions. Extent depends on how reduction is achieved.
  • Synergies in agricultural sector important.
  • Significant ancillary benefits demonstrated in many case studies
strategic aspects
Strategic aspects

GHG emission trading schemes can have impacts on air pollution:

  • C trading influences air pollution control costs
  • C trading affects regional environmental impacts of air pollution. Ancillary (dis-)benefits should be considered.
  • Effects of C trading are uncertain. This causes a problem for defining an air pollution baseline scenario.
modelling the linkages
Modelling the linkages
  • Modelling requires bridging different temporal and spatial scales.
  • Extension of multi-effect approach? Could offer a systematic tool for choosing multiple targets of different types.
  • Models will have to address sustainable development and structural changes beyond cost-effectiveness.
  • Keep models manageable!
the way forward
The way forward
  • Extension of RAINS towards greenhouse gas cost curves is underway to
    • Help decision makers maximizing positive synergies and minimizing trade-offs, and
    • Selecting most cost-effective measures in view of the objectives of both policy areas.
  • Primary focus should be on scientific issues.
  • Improved contacts between air pollution and climate change science communities necessary.