Znanstveno savjetovanje "Obrazovanje inženjera – Bolonjski proces – 3 godine kasnije" 08. – 10. studenoga 2007., Zagreb Experiences in Bologna Process Implementation at the Faculty of Chemical Technology of Split Ivka Klarić, Department for Organic Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Split, University of Split, Croatia, firstname.lastname@example.org
The Faculty of Chemical Technology (FTC) was founded and started to work in 1960. Since then it has been organizing and performing the teaching procedure and scientific-research work from the area of technical sciences, scientific field of chemical enginering, and since 2005/06 also from the area of natural sciences, scientific field of chemistry. So far the teaching programmes of the Faculty have been constantly updated so that they can be comparable with programmes worldwide. The last adjustment of the programmes was made in 2005 in accordance with the Bologna Declaration proposition implemented in the new Scientific Activity and Higher Education Law (the Low).
The main proposition of Declaration are: • The system of studying is based on two educational degrees, the undergraduate and graduate study, while the second cycle is the postgraduate study; • Introduction of ECTS credit system; • Introduction of diploma supplement; • Promotion of the students’, lecturers’, researches’ and clerical workers’ mobility; • Promotion of coopperation in quality ensuring; • Promotion of necessary European dimension in higher education
Faculty of Chemical Technology have organized their programmes to be carried out according to the study model (3+2) + 3. Each semester has 30 ECTS credits. One ECTS represents the student´s total working load of 30 periods. Since the academic year 2005/06 five study programmes have been organized at Faculty:
University undergraduate study of chemistry • University undergraduate study of chemical technology • University graduate study of chemistry with the courses: • Organic chemistry and biochemistry; • Environmental chemistry • University graduate study of chemical technology with the courses: • Materials; • Environmental protection; • Mediterranean cultures • Professional study of chemical technology with the courses: • Chemical technology and materials; • Food technology
Undergraduate studies last 3 years (180 ECTS).The study is completed with final work, the certificate is obtained and academic title of Bachelor of Chemistry or Bachelor Engineer of Chemical Technology (according to NN 107/2007). Graduate studies (to be carried out in 2008/09) last 2 years (120 ECTS). The study is completed with final work, the diploma is obtained and the academic title of Master of Chemistry or Master Engineer of Chemical Technology.
Professional studies last 5 semesters (150 ECTS). The study is completed with final work, the certificate is obtained and the professional title Engineer of Chemical Technology. It is obligatory to issue the student a diploma supplement which contains: lists of all exams and marks, the data on the teaching load and teaching matter. University postgraduate study "Chemical enginering in materials development and environmental protection" is in procedure of reviewing. The study lasts 3 years (180 ECTS) and is completed with the elaboration and defence of doctoral thesis, the diploma is obtained and academic degree Doctor of Sciences in Chemical Engineering.
In elaboration of the above-mentioned study programmes: • all courses last one semester • average weekly teaching load is 25-26 periods at undergraduate and graduate studies, 20-22 periods at professional study and 8-12 periods at university postgraduate study. • 15 % of total amount of ECTS accounts for optional courses at undergraduate studies, 20 % at graduate and 50 % at postgraduate studies.
Faculty staff consists of 34 lecturers (31 in scientific-teaching vocation and 3 in teaching vocation), 23 assistants, 12 laboratory technicians and 25 the others. Outside lecturers from universities of Split and Zagreb also take part in carrying out the teaching. At the Faculty there are about 500 students and 94 permanently employed workers. Since the establishment of the Faculty 1310 students graduated, 33 students got Master Degree and 35 got Doctor´s Degree.
The programmes of all studies are accessible at the Faculty’s Internet sites (www.ktf-split.hr). There one can find the curriculum for the current academic year (with a list of lecturers and co-workers, time-table of teaching activities, examination terms, and other important information related to the studies or students’ life announced by the Students Association on their Internet sites. The plan is announced before the beginning of the academic year.
The lecturers have prepared a lot of teaching materials for the students as a supplement for their lectures and put them on the Faculty’s Internet sites. Majority of lecturers use modern teaching aids (computers,projectors and power-point presentations); they put the examples of examination tasks on the web sites, announce the examination terms and examination results, and also communicate with students by the e-mail. Teaching procedure is organized and carried out through lectures, seminars, laboratory exercises, professional practice and field teaching, scientific and professional work. The student is obliged to attend all kinds of teaching procedure. At the beginning of the academic year a mentor is appointed for each student (8-10 students/mentor) and he/she observes the student’s work during semester.
At the implementation of the BolognaProcess some new problems have appeared or the existing problems have become more prominent, like the permanent lack of space. By setting up a greater number of courses and modules, more optional courses, work above the norm for some lecturers and assistants and engagement of outside lecturers, that problem has generated difficulties in setting the timetable. The Faculty disposes of only 6 lecture rooms and so teaching procedure is going on all day long from 8 to 20 o’clock, but in spite of it the timetable outline is a great problem, as the students who take again the courses that they have not passed should be enabled to listen to them again. The solution of the problems is expected after the new premises are built on the Campus.
There is continual observation of the students’ progress in all courses. Their knowledge is being tested during the term (partial exams, elaboration of seminar works and smaller project tasks, individual solving of tasks, etc.). In the first year of the Bologna Programme implementation there were certain problems due to the students’ insufficient level of information. To avoid any misunderstandings all the lecturers have to explain to the students their duties and conditions of taking the exams and to announce it on the students board or on the web sites of their departments.
The student has opportunity for taking exams in all the courses during the semester through the system of partial exams (written and/or oral), minimally 2 and maximally 4. ECTS credits related to a particular course are realized after all the duties are completed. Examination periods are in winter, summer and autumn. It lasts at least 4 weeks and has two examination terms with an interval of at least 15 days. The examination in one course can be taken 4 times at the most, of which the fourth time is taken before the Commission. If the student fails to pass at four times, he/she has to take that course again in the next academic year. He/she can sit it again 4 times, but if he/she does not pass it he/she loses the right of studying at that study. The way of taking exams is determined by the Book of Regulations on the studies at the FCT.
The first generation of students studying after the Bologna Programme has just started the third year of the study. As they are expected to take the final work, in the third year they have to take one optional course relevant to the topic of their final work, and in agreement with the mentor. All the lecturers and mentors have to propose the topics for the final works before the beginning of the academic year.
In the next academic year 2008/09 the realization of graduate studies begins. The right of enrolment on graduate studies have the persons who have completed the undergraduate study at the FCT and also the students of related faculties (Food Technology, Textile Technology, Pharmaceutical-Biochemical and others). There is also interest to enrol the graduate study among those who have graduated from a professional study (after the old programme) at Faculty or they will finish it this year after the Bologna. The way and conditions of enrolment are just being prepared and will be incorporated in the Book of Regulations on studies and studying. For these persons attending and taking exams of the differential year will be proposed.
Regarding the analysis of successfulnessof studying after the Bologna the following has been done: • Analysis of passing rate achieved at particular courses after the first semester (Enclosure 1). • Analysis of realized ECTS credits after the first study year (Enclosure 2). Analysis of successfulness after the second year is still being processed. • From the Enclosure 1 and comparison of data for the first semester from earlier years, the study rate at particular courses (especially Mathematics) has risen, and quality of studying has also risen (better average marks have been achieved).
Enclosure 1: Analysis of successfulness of taking exams after first semester (1st March 2006) UNDERGRADUATE STUDY OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY Passed the exam Have not passed the exam 9 % 49 % 51 % GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY MATHEMATICS 91 % 46 % 68 % 32 % COMPUTING 54 % PHYSICS
Enclosure 1: Analysis of successfulness of taking exams after first semester (1st March 2006) UNDERGRADUATE STUDY OF CHEMISTRY Passed the exam Have not passed the exam 14 % 45 % 55 % GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY MATHEMATICS 86 % 46 % 70 % 30 % COMPUTING 54 % PHYSICS
Enclosure 1: Analysis of successfulness of taking exams after first semester (1st March 2006) PROFESSIONAL STUDY OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY Passed the exam Have not passed the exam 71 % 29 % 40% CHEMICAL CALCULATION MATHEMATICS 60 % 45 % 55 % CHEMISTRY I
Enclosure 2: Analysis of successfulness of studying after first year of studying
This year for the first time the students’ evaluation of teaching was carried out by the survey that the University made many years ago. Earlier some lecturers carried out their own surveys, but there has not been a systematic unified survey yet. Such a survey is expected to be prepared by the University, because a positively assessed survey is necessary when lecturers apply for vocations. Surveys are planned to be taken at the end of each semester, i.e. two times a year by Vice-Dean for academic affairs. The aim is to improve and advance the teaching procedure. This year the Centre for Quality Improvement has been established (at the University) and also Commissions for Quality Improvement (with the University constituents). At the FCT the Commission has 5 members.
Among other Bologna Process propositions, mobility scheme remains to be realized, but the precondition for that is to open some relevant offices at the University and at the Faculty that would prepare the necessary documents. All of the University constituents have appointed the ECTS commissioner, and the University its coordinator. For the beginning we are encouraging the students of the last year of study to mobility for the sake of elaborating their finals, diplomas and doctoral theses. So far the students have realized mobility so that their practice has been organized by the IASTE. This year they have also become members of FISEC and opened up new possibilities.
In the last period there were two students from France and Germany at our Faculty to do their summer practice and two postgraduate students from BiH to perform the experimental part of their doctoral theses. We have had quite many inquires, especially by the students from India, to study 1 or 2 semesters at our Faculty, but unfortunately we were not able to receive them. Anyway, there is the issue of financing these stays.
Apart from the students’ mobility, we should improve the lecturers’ mobility as well. Last year two of our trainee-assistants were in Germany for scientific improvement, and several others stayed for a short time at the faculties of Italy, France, Germany and Bulgaria. Two of our lecturers are visiting lecturers in Mostar, one was in Marseill. Two visiting lectures from France were at Faculty too. This year we are expecting a visiting lecturer from France too. Generally, our aim is to improve the international cooperation at all levels.
The long-term targets and aims in the Bologna Process implementation at the Faculty are: • constantly to observe the quality of the institution and of teaching procedure for the purpose of increasing the passing rate and successfulness of studying, • to perform regular self-assessment for the evaluation of one’s own quality, • to introduce the ISVU system for observing the teaching procedure, • to be involved in European projects for the exchange of students and lecturers, • to reinforce the scientific-teaching personnel (exchange of outside lecturers),
to move to the Campus and to hold theoretical and laboratory teaching at one location, which will disburden the students and contribute to the quality of studying, • to improve the equipment of all Departments for the purpose of better teaching and scientific-research work, • to have more scientific projects, • to continually harmonize our programmes with the programmes of European universities so that we can follow scientific achievements, • to carry out the surveys after the students have passed their exams for the sake of possible corrections of attributed ECTS credits, • to introduce lifelong education for students and other Faculty workers and students who have completed the study as well.
We plan better links between the Faculty and economy and also greater engagement and motivation of lecturers in solving their professional issues, especially through the organization of specialist postgraduate studies. Today the cooperation with economy is sporadic (TLM, AD Plastic, cement industry, Ironworks, small private businesses, and the like) and it is carried out through the elaboration of projects and studies, professional analyses, diploma works and Master and Doctor’s theses. It is necessary to collect the data about all the students who have graduated from the FCT (Alumni) so that their employment could be analysed and observed and in cooperation with them to harmonize the teaching programmes with the needs of the economy.
Conclusion: There are some difficulties in the Bologna Process implementation but they are not insurmountable. All the subjects, participants in the process, from students to lecturers and supporting services in the function of teaching and scientific-research work, should carry out alterations for a completely new way of work and thinking. After all, we are talking about a process that is being developed, improved and adopted. Results certainly won’t fail to come for the students who have decided to study, and time of studying will be considerably reduced.