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Batteries - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Batteries. Physics. Power Cell. Device for storing chemical energy and then releasing it in the form of electricity when current is needed. Battery. More than one power cell working together. 9 V battery. Inside a 9 V are 6-1.5 V power cells connected in a row. Parts of a Power Cell.

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batteries

Batteries

Physics

power cell
Power Cell
  • Device for storing chemical energy and then releasing it in the form of electricity when current is needed
battery
Battery
  • More than

one power

cell working

together

slide4

9 V battery

Inside a 9 V are 6-1.5 V power cells connected in a row.

parts of a power cell
Parts of a Power Cell

1. Anode

  • Metal
  • High affinity for oxygen
  • Draw oxygen from cathode to become oxidized
parts of a cell
Parts of a Cell

2. Cathode

  • Metallic oxide
  • Lower affinity for oxygen
  • Becomes reduced when oxygen is taken
parts of a cell7
Parts of a Cell

3.Separator

  • Insulator
  • Keeps cathode separated from anode to control reaction
parts of a cell8
Parts of a Cell

4.Current Collector

  • Connected to anode and cathode
  • Good conductor

5.Electrolyte

  • Usually liquid (ionized water, acid/base)
  • “Domino Effect” of oxygen from cathode to anode
operation of power cell
Operation of Power Cell
  • As anode becomes oxidized, an electron must be given up
  • Electron flows through anode’s current collector  through circuit (outside of battery) as electrical current  back to cathode’s current collector
carbon zinc c zn
Carbon-Zinc (C-Zn)
  • 1.5 volts
  • Works well if using 100 mA or less
  • Low capacity
  • 3 year shelf life
alkaline
Alkaline
  • 1.5 V: lose voltage gradually
  • High Capacity (electrical energy)
    • Last longer
  • 5 year shelf-life
  • Better in high drain devices than C-Zn
lithium
Lithium
  • Started off as button cell
  • Anode: lithium
  • Cathode: magnesium dioxide
  • 3 V: Takes up less space with more voltage
lithium15
Lithium
  • High Capacity
  • Low Drain Rate
  • Toxic: Special disposal
  • Light Weight
button cell
Button Cell
  • Anode: Zinc or Lithium
  • Cathode: Silver or Mercury Oxide
  • Compact
  • Large Life
recharging batteries
Recharging Batteries
  • A current from an outside source is pushed through the cell in the opposite direction from the original current
  • Oxygen goes from anode to cathode
nickel cadmium ni cd
Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd)
  • 1.2 Volts
  • Low capacity
  • Memory effect (Rechargeable)
    • If you re-charge the battery too soon, you lower its capacity
nickel metal hydride nimh
Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH)
  • 1.2 V
  • Best rechargeable battery
  • High Capacity
  • Good for high drainage devices
lithium ion
Lithium-Ion
  • 3.6 V
  • Slow-loss of charge (5% per month)
  • Best energy to weight ratio
  • No memory effect
  • Popular for portable electronics (cell phones, IPod)
diode
Diode
  • Made of semi-conducting material
  • Only permits current to pass in one direction
  • L.E.D.: light emitting diode
    • Longer leg must be connected to positive side of circuit (cathode)