Batteries. Physics. Power Cell. Device for storing chemical energy and then releasing it in the form of electricity when current is needed. Battery. More than one power cell working together. 9 V battery. Inside a 9 V are 6-1.5 V power cells connected in a row. Parts of a Power Cell.
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Power Cell • Device for storing chemical energy and then releasing it in the form of electricity when current is needed
Battery • More than one power cell working together
9 V battery Inside a 9 V are 6-1.5 V power cells connected in a row.
Parts of a Power Cell 1. Anode • Metal • High affinity for oxygen • Draw oxygen from cathode to become oxidized
Parts of a Cell 2. Cathode • Metallic oxide • Lower affinity for oxygen • Becomes reduced when oxygen is taken
Parts of a Cell 3.Separator • Insulator • Keeps cathode separated from anode to control reaction
Parts of a Cell 4.Current Collector • Connected to anode and cathode • Good conductor 5.Electrolyte • Usually liquid (ionized water, acid/base) • “Domino Effect” of oxygen from cathode to anode
Operation of Power Cell • As anode becomes oxidized, an electron must be given up • Electron flows through anode’s current collector through circuit (outside of battery) as electrical current back to cathode’s current collector
Carbon-Zinc (C-Zn) • 1.5 volts • Works well if using 100 mA or less • Low capacity • 3 year shelf life
Alkaline • 1.5 V: lose voltage gradually • High Capacity (electrical energy) • Last longer • 5 year shelf-life • Better in high drain devices than C-Zn
Lithium • Started off as button cell • Anode: lithium • Cathode: magnesium dioxide • 3 V: Takes up less space with more voltage
Lithium • High Capacity • Low Drain Rate • Toxic: Special disposal • Light Weight
Button Cell • Anode: Zinc or Lithium • Cathode: Silver or Mercury Oxide • Compact • Large Life
Recharging Batteries • A current from an outside source is pushed through the cell in the opposite direction from the original current • Oxygen goes from anode to cathode
Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd) • 1.2 Volts • Low capacity • Memory effect (Rechargeable) • If you re-charge the battery too soon, you lower its capacity
Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) • 1.2 V • Best rechargeable battery • High Capacity • Good for high drainage devices
Lithium-Ion • 3.6 V • Slow-loss of charge (5% per month) • Best energy to weight ratio • No memory effect • Popular for portable electronics (cell phones, IPod)
Diode • Made of semi-conducting material • Only permits current to pass in one direction • L.E.D.: light emitting diode • Longer leg must be connected to positive side of circuit (cathode)