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What to do with daily milk data - advanced epidemiology. R Shephard 1 and MA Stevenson 2 1 Gippsland Herd Improvement 2 Foster St Maffra, Victoria, Australia 2 EpiCentre, IVABS, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Roadmap. Lactation curves Shewart charts

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what to do with daily milk data advanced epidemiology

What to do with daily milk data - advanced epidemiology

R Shephard1 and MA Stevenson2

1 Gippsland Herd Improvement 2 Foster St Maffra, Victoria, Australia

2 EpiCentre, IVABS, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

roadmap
Roadmap
  • Lactation curves
  • Shewart charts
  • Individual somatic cell count frequency histograms
  • Individual somatic cell count scatter plots
lactation curves
Lactation curves
  • Herd test data
    • rank cows in order of productive merit
    • dry off and culling decisions
    • somatic cell counts  dry cow therapy decisions
lactation curves4
Lactation curves
  • Lactation curves
    •  herd test milk volumevs days in milk at date of herd test
    • an additional (objective) way to assess a herd’s feeding program
slide6
Good producers

(abortions?)

Peak yield

Persistency

Crook?

Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Kiama NSW

slide7
Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Kiama NSW

Peak yield = 28.5 litres at 50 DIM

 0.04 litres per day

  1.2 litres per month

 1.2 28.5 ~ 4.2% per month

slide9
Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Palmerston North

Peak yield = 25.7 litres at 50 DIM

 0.07 litres per day

  2.1 litres per month

 2.1  25.7 ~ 8.2% per month

slide11
Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Masterton

Peak yield = 15.4 litres at 50 DIM

 0.03 litres per day

  0.9 litres per month

 0.9  15.4 ~ 5.8% per month

slide12
Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Kangaloon NSW

Peak yield = 26.9 litres at 50 DIM

 0.03 litres per day

  0.9 litres per month

 0.9  26.9 ~ 3.3% per month

lactation curves14
Lactation curves
  • Fat to protein ratio vs DIM
slide15
Low protein relative to fat

- low energy intake?

Low fat relative to protein

- insufficient dietary fibre?

Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Palmerston North

slide18
Low protein relative to fat

- low energy intake?

Low fat relative to protein

- insufficient dietary fibre?

Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Palmerston North

slide19
Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Palmerston North

Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Masterton

roadmap20
Roadmap
  • Lactation curves
  • Shewart charts
  • Individual somatic cell count frequency histograms
  • Individual somatic cell count scatter plots
shewart charts
Shewart charts
  • Common to monitor aspects of herd performance as a function of time:
    • bulk milk tank volume
    • successful inseminations
    • bulk milk tank somatic cell counts
  • How many abnormal values do we need to accumulate before blowing the whistle?
slide23
Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Moss Vale NSW

Define what is ‘normal’ and an acceptable level of variability:

slide24
Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Moss Vale NSW

Define what is ‘normal’ and an acceptable level of variability:

slide25
Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Moss Vale NSW

Test 1: a single point outside of control limits

Test 2: 3 out of 4 consecutive points closer to the control limit than to the centre line

Test 3: 8 or more successive points on one side of the centre line

roadmap26
Roadmap
  • Lactation curves
  • Shewart charts
  • Individual somatic cell count frequency histograms
  • Individual somatic cell count scatter plots
icscc frequency histograms
ICSCC frequency histograms
  • Bin ICSCCs:
    • 0 - 100,000 cells/mL
    • 100,000 - 200,000 cells/mL
    • etc
  • Count up the number that fall into each group and plot as bar charts
  • See Ryan (1991)
slide28
Good mastitis control:

high numbers in 0 - 100,000 cells/mL category

low numbers in 500,000 - 1,000,000 cells/mL category

slide29
Poor mastitis control:

lower numbers in 0 - 100,000 cells/mL category

higher numbers in 500,000 - 1,000,000 cells/mL category

slide30
Ineffective teat dip:

large numbers 100,000 - 200,000 cells/mL category

A.bovis  udder ‘irritant’

icscc frequency histograms31
ICSCC frequency histograms
  • How can we use ICSCC histograms?
    • effective way to monitor responses to suggested mastitis controls
      • ICSCC frequency histograms change relatively quickly after implementation of a mastitis control program
      • BMSCCs, in contrast, change more slowly
slide33
Start of control

Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Moss Vale NSW

roadmap36
Roadmap
  • Lactation curves
  • Shewart charts
  • Individual somatic cell count frequency histograms
  • Individual somatic cell count scatter plots
icscc scatter plots
ICSCC scatter plots
  • Clarify patterns of subclinical mastitis from one herd test to the next
    • take two [consecutive] herd tests
    • plot first herd test ICSCC value (x axis) vs second herd test ICSCC value (y axis)
slide38
Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Kiama NSW

New infections

Chronics

Clear

Cured

scatter plots continued
Scatter plots - continued
  • Loeffler et al. (1999)
    • study of 9369 lactations evaluated effect of milk components on dairy cow fertility
    • increase in fat-protein ratio a possible risk for reproductive failure
slide42
Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Palmerston North

Low - High

High - High

Low - Low

High - Low

slide43
Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Masterton

Low - High

High - High

Low - Low

High - Low

roadmap44
Lactation curves …

quantify herd production characteristics

Roadmap
roadmap45
Lactation curves …

Shewart charts …

quantify herd production characteristics

help to decide when to blow the whistle

Roadmap
roadmap46
Lactation curves …

Shewart charts …

ICSCC frequency histograms …

quantify herd production characteristics

help to decide when to blow the whistle

monitor response to controls

Roadmap
roadmap47
Lactation curves …

Shewart charts …

ICSCC frequency histograms …

ICSCC scatter plots …

quantify herd production characteristics

help to decide when to blow the whistle

monitor response to controls

identify infection patterns

Roadmap
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