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What is the role of the media in policy process?. Watchdog Educator Instrument of policy entrepreneurs? Entertainment?. Changing Role of American News Media. Political Mouth Peace Partisan funded papers Financial Independence

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what is the role of the media in policy process
What is the role of the media in policy process?
  • Watchdog
  • Educator
  • Instrument of policy entrepreneurs?
  • Entertainment?
changing role of american news media
Changing Role of American News Media
  • Political Mouth Peace
    • Partisan funded papers
  • Financial Independence
    • Expansion of the suffrage & literacy rates leads to the penny press and financial independence from political parties.
  • Objective Journalism
    • Journalism becomes thought of as a profession with professional standards and ethics.
    • Politicians could speak directly to public
    • TV expands the demand for news. (1963 CBS/NBC)
    • Cable TV brings “round the clock” coverage
    • How/why does culture change?
  • Investigatory Journalism
    • Don’t just convey the news, investigate it.
  • Media Conglomeration (5 corporations own over 50% of circulation and revenue of newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, books, and movies)
the influence of the media on the public
The Influence of the Media on the Public
  • Average American watches 4.5 hours of TV
  • Agenda Setting – attention to certain issues (or lack of attention)
  • Advertising!!!!!
  • Affects our taste in News? Sensationalism, Personality, & Image (over policy, politics, and substance)
  • Or are they simply giving us what we want
chermak and weiss article
Chermak and Weiss Article
  • Did the media influence federal gun control policy?
    • Opening a ‘window of opportunity
    • Influencing the range of policy alternatives
    • Promoting the interests of policy entrepreneurs
chermak and weiss article7
Chermak and Weiss Article
  • The Brady Bill and the ‘waiting period’
  • Assault Weapons Ban
  • Event driven
  • Opens windows of opportunities (keep open)
  • Focus on specific policy alternatives
do the elite control the media
Do the elite control the media?
  • Agenda Setting
    • Selection of topics
    • Distribution of Concerns
  • Framing
    • Emphasis
    • Filter information
    • Bounding of debate
agenda setting selection of topics
Agenda Setting/Selection of Topics
  • Strategic selection
  • Selection of convenience
  • Subconscious selections
  • Random selection
  • Market factors: supply and demand
    • Give us what we want
shaping emphasis

Several years after 9/11, 69 % of Americans to believe that Saddam Hussein had a role in the attacks (62 % of Democrats, 80 % of Republicans and 67 % of independents)

"The battle of Iraq is one victory in a war on terror that began on September the 11, 2001 -- and still goes on. That terrible morning, 19 evil men -- the shock troops of a hateful ideology -- gave America and the civilized world a glimpse of their ambitions."

factors limiting the influence of media
Factors Limiting the Influence of Media
  • Socialization
  • Selectivity
  • Competition (limited)
  • Internet?
is the media biased
Is the Media Biased?
  • Liberal Bias (31% of Newspaper editors are democrats;14% Republican – 1996 survey)
  • Conservative Bias (Corporate Ownership)
  • Government Bias (relies on government for information & Licenses)
  • Capitalist bias (sell products)
what should we do about the media
What should we do about the media?
  • Nothing
  • Increase competition
  • Regulate content
  • Deregulation
regulation of the media
Regulation of the Media
  • Broadcast licenses renewed every three years if the station meets the "public interest, convenience, or necessity." about 99.9% are renewed
  • Ownership restrictions
    • No one cable company could own more than 30% of the market (rule struck down)
  • Government Censorship
de regulation of the media
(de)Regulation of the Media
  • Fairness doctrine (repealed in 1987)
  • Equal Time provision (repealed in 1983)
  • New FCC Rules on ownership restrictions
    • Cross-ownership: F.C.C.’s decision in 2007 to relax its ban on cross ownership of a daily newspaper and a television station in the same market (under appeal)
  • Since 1996 TCA # of stations have increased but # of owners have decreased