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What is Psychology?. The science of behavior and the mind behavior - observable actions mind - subjective experiences (thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives) science an objective way to answer questions

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What is Psychology?

  • The science of behavior and the mind

    • behavior - observable actions

    • mind - subjective experiences (thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives)

    • science

      • an objective way to answer questions

      • based on observable facts / data and well described methods


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What is Psychology?

  • A set of questions about mental functioning

    • trace back to philosophy

    • Aristotle asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc.

  • A set of theories and procedures for asking and answering questions

    • the scientific method

  • A product of history

    • religion, philosophy, physiology


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Philosophical Developments

BIG

  • A Question: How are mind and body related?

  • Dualism - body and soul are separate but interrelated

    • origins in medieval religion

    • Soul: seat of thought and intellect

    • mind is product of soul

      • mind not subject to scientific inquiry

    • to challenge this was punishable by death

    • (compare to astronomy (Ptolemy vs. Copernicus, Galileo)


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Philosophical Developments

  • Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

    • since animals have no soul, much behavior does not require soul

    • the body can therefore control much behavior

      • led him to study reflexes

    • the soul’s main function is thought, a uniquely human attribute


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Philosophical Developments

  • Materialism: Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

    • only matter, energy exist

    • mind: product of brain (matter), thus subject to natural law

  • Empiricism: Locke, Hume

    • knowledge and thought derive from sensory experience

    • thought not produced by free will but by experience

  • Empiricism vs. Nativism aka Nature vs Nurture


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Foundations of Modern Psychology

  • Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

  • Theory of natural selection (1859)

    • views traits in light of adaptive function

  • Humans are part/ product of nature and can be understood through the methods of science


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Foundations of Modern Psychology

  • Darwin’s theory encouraged scientific inquiry of human behavior

  • 19th century physiology

    • scientific methods, controlled laboratory experiments

    • influential beliefs from early physiology

      • reflexology - all human behaviors occur through reflexes

      • localization of brain function


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Foundations of Modern Psychology

  • Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

    • first psychology laboratory: Leibzig 1879

    • structuralism - identify ‘atoms’ of the mind

      • focused on basic sensory and perceptual processes

      • measured reaction times


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Other Pioneers

  • Edward Titchener

    • structuralism, introspection

  • William James

    • functionalism, introspection not method but source of ideas

  • Mary Calkins, Christine Ladd-Franklin, Margaret Floy Washburn

  • Max Wertheimer

    • Gestalt psychology

    • phi phenomenon:

    • http://psych.purdue.edu/Magniphi/SimpliPhi.html, http://psych.purdue.edu/Magniphi/MagniPhi.html


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  • John Watson

    • Behaviorism: S-R psychology(see reflexology)

  • B.F. Skinner

    • operant psychology

  • Konrad Lorenz

    • ethology: animal behavior in natural environment

  • Karl Lashley

    • neural basis of learning


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  • Sigmund Freud

    • psychoanalysis, unconscious mind

  • Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow

    • humanistic psychology: self-actualization drive

  • Cultural and Social Psychology

  • Cognitive Revolution

    • developed from S-O-R behaviorists

    • aided by Piaget, Chomsky


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Other Pioneers

  • Alfred Binet (1857-1911)

    • French intelligence researcher

    • developed first intelligence test

  • Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

    • Russian physiologist

    • discovered conditioned reflexes

  • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)

    • American psychologist at Harvard

    • studied learning and effect of reinforcement

    • behaviorism


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Perspectives

  • Perspective is a way of viewing phenomena

  • Psychology has multiple perspectives

    • ethological

    • biological

    • psychoanalytic

    • cognitive

    • cross- cultural

    • social


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Ethology

  • The study of animal behavior in the natural environment rather than in a lab setting

  • Influenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate, adaptive behavior patterns

  • European approach to studying behavior founded by animal researchers, Lorenz and Tinbergen


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Biological Perspective

  • Study the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behavior

  • Focus may be at various levels

    • individual neurons

    • areas of the brain

    • specific functions like eating, emotion or learning

  • Interest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences


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Clinical Perspective

  • View of behavior based on experience treating patients

  • Psychoanalytic approach (Sigmund Freud )

    • both a method of treatment and a theory of the mind

    • behavior reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influences

    • drives and urges within the unconscious component of mind influence thought and behavior

    • early childhood experiences shape unconscious motivations


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Clinical Perspective

  • View of behavior based on experience treating patients

    • Humanistic approach

      • developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

      • behavior reflects innate ‘actualization’

      • focus on conscious forces and self perception

    • More positive view of basic forces than Freud’s


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Cultural Psychology

  • The study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groups

  • How are people’s thoughts, feelings and behavior influenced by their culture?

  • What are the common elements across culture? Are these innate?


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Cognitive Perspective

  • How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior ?

  • Influences include

    • Piaget - studied intellectual development

    • Chomsky - studied language

    • Cybernetics - science of information processing


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The Profession of Psychology

  • American Psychological Association had 52 divisions in 1998

  • Some represent areas of training and specialization (e.g., developmental, clinical)

  • Some are applied (i.e., teaching in psychology, psychology and the law)


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Industrial/Organizational 3%

Social and

Personality 8%

Biological and

Experimental

16%

Educational 3%

Other

Psychology

15%

Developmental 6%

School 3%

Clinical

36%

Counseling 10%

Areas of Specialization

  • Clinical

    • abnormal behavior and psychological disorders

    • psychologist vs. psychiatrist

  • Health psychology

    • psychological factors in physical health

  • Counseling

    • dealing with normal life situations

    • provide guidance


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Industrial/Organizational 3%

Social and

Personality 8%

Biological and

Experimental

16%

Educational 3%

Other

Psychology

15%

Developmental 6%

School 3%

Clinical

36%

Counseling 10%

Areas of Specialization

  • Developmental

    • psychological change over the life span

    • social, cognitive, personality

  • School

    • counseling and guidance in school settings

  • Educational

    • learning and teaching


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Industrial/Organizational 3%

Social and

Personality 8%

Biological and

Experimental

16%

Educational 3%

Other

Psychology

15%

Developmental 6%

School 3%

Clinical

36%

Counseling 10%

Areas of Specialization

  • Psychobiology

    • brain and behavior

    • studied at many levels

    • often uses animals as research model

  • Experimental

    • basic laboratory focus

    • animals or humans

    • learning, memory, motivation

  • Cognitive

    • experimental

    • human memory, perception, etc.


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Industrial/Organizational 3%

Social and

Personality 8%

Biological and

Experimental

16%

Educational 3%

Other

Psychology

15%

Developmental 6%

School 3%

Clinical

36%

Counseling 10%

Areas of Specialization

  • Social

    • social influences on cognition and emotion

    • attitudes and beliefs

  • Personality

    • individual differences

    • perception by others

  • Industrial/organizational

    • people and work

    • job satisfaction

    • training and selection


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Employment Settings of Psychologists

Business

& Industry

Private

Practice

School

Universities &

College

Government

Professional Work Settings

  • Colleges and universities

  • Clinical settings

  • Elementary and secondary schools

  • Business

  • Government