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What is Psychology?. The science of behavior and the mind behavior - observable actions mind - subjective experiences (thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives) science an objective way to answer questions

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what is psychology
What is Psychology?
  • The science of behavior and the mind
    • behavior - observable actions
    • mind - subjective experiences (thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives)
    • science
      • an objective way to answer questions
      • based on observable facts / data and well described methods
what is psychology3
What is Psychology?
  • A set of questions about mental functioning
    • trace back to philosophy
    • Aristotle asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc.
  • A set of theories and procedures for asking and answering questions
    • the scientific method
  • A product of history
    • religion, philosophy, physiology
philosophical developments
Philosophical Developments

BIG

  • A Question: How are mind and body related?
  • Dualism - body and soul are separate but interrelated
    • origins in medieval religion
    • Soul: seat of thought and intellect
    • mind is product of soul
      • mind not subject to scientific inquiry
    • to challenge this was punishable by death
    • (compare to astronomy (Ptolemy vs. Copernicus, Galileo)
philosophical developments5
Philosophical Developments
  • Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
    • since animals have no soul, much behavior does not require soul
    • the body can therefore control much behavior
      • led him to study reflexes
    • the soul’s main function is thought, a uniquely human attribute
philosophical developments8
Philosophical Developments
  • Materialism: Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
    • only matter, energy exist
    • mind: product of brain (matter), thus subject to natural law
  • Empiricism: Locke, Hume
    • knowledge and thought derive from sensory experience
    • thought not produced by free will but by experience
  • Empiricism vs. Nativism aka Nature vs Nurture
foundations of modern psychology
Foundations of Modern Psychology
  • Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
  • Theory of natural selection (1859)
    • views traits in light of adaptive function
  • Humans are part/ product of nature and can be understood through the methods of science
foundations of modern psychology10
Foundations of Modern Psychology
  • Darwin’s theory encouraged scientific inquiry of human behavior
  • 19th century physiology
    • scientific methods, controlled laboratory experiments
    • influential beliefs from early physiology
      • reflexology - all human behaviors occur through reflexes
      • localization of brain function
foundations of modern psychology11
Foundations of Modern Psychology
  • Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
    • first psychology laboratory: Leibzig 1879
    • structuralism - identify ‘atoms’ of the mind
      • focused on basic sensory and perceptual processes
      • measured reaction times
other pioneers
Other Pioneers
  • Edward Titchener
    • structuralism, introspection
  • William James
    • functionalism, introspection not method but source of ideas
  • Mary Calkins, Christine Ladd-Franklin, Margaret Floy Washburn
  • Max Wertheimer
    • Gestalt psychology
    • phi phenomenon:
    • http://psych.purdue.edu/Magniphi/SimpliPhi.html, http://psych.purdue.edu/Magniphi/MagniPhi.html
slide13
John Watson
    • Behaviorism: S-R psychology(see reflexology)
  • B.F. Skinner
    • operant psychology
  • Konrad Lorenz
    • ethology: animal behavior in natural environment
  • Karl Lashley
    • neural basis of learning
slide14
Sigmund Freud
    • psychoanalysis, unconscious mind
  • Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow
    • humanistic psychology: self-actualization drive
  • Cultural and Social Psychology
  • Cognitive Revolution
    • developed from S-O-R behaviorists
    • aided by Piaget, Chomsky
other pioneers16
Other Pioneers
  • Alfred Binet (1857-1911)
    • French intelligence researcher
    • developed first intelligence test
  • Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
    • Russian physiologist
    • discovered conditioned reflexes
  • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
    • American psychologist at Harvard
    • studied learning and effect of reinforcement
    • behaviorism
perspectives
Perspectives
  • Perspective is a way of viewing phenomena
  • Psychology has multiple perspectives
    • ethological
    • biological
    • psychoanalytic
    • cognitive
    • cross- cultural
    • social
ethology
Ethology
  • The study of animal behavior in the natural environment rather than in a lab setting
  • Influenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate, adaptive behavior patterns
  • European approach to studying behavior founded by animal researchers, Lorenz and Tinbergen
biological perspective
Biological Perspective
  • Study the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behavior
  • Focus may be at various levels
    • individual neurons
    • areas of the brain
    • specific functions like eating, emotion or learning
  • Interest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences
clinical perspective
Clinical Perspective
  • View of behavior based on experience treating patients
  • Psychoanalytic approach (Sigmund Freud )
    • both a method of treatment and a theory of the mind
    • behavior reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influences
    • drives and urges within the unconscious component of mind influence thought and behavior
    • early childhood experiences shape unconscious motivations
clinical perspective21
Clinical Perspective
  • View of behavior based on experience treating patients
    • Humanistic approach
      • developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
      • behavior reflects innate ‘actualization’
      • focus on conscious forces and self perception
    • More positive view of basic forces than Freud’s
cultural psychology
Cultural Psychology
  • The study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groups
  • How are people’s thoughts, feelings and behavior influenced by their culture?
  • What are the common elements across culture? Are these innate?
cognitive perspective
Cognitive Perspective
  • How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior ?
  • Influences include
    • Piaget - studied intellectual development
    • Chomsky - studied language
    • Cybernetics - science of information processing
the profession of psychology
The Profession of Psychology
  • American Psychological Association had 52 divisions in 1998
  • Some represent areas of training and specialization (e.g., developmental, clinical)
  • Some are applied (i.e., teaching in psychology, psychology and the law)
areas of specialization

Industrial/Organizational 3%

Social and

Personality 8%

Biological and

Experimental

16%

Educational 3%

Other

Psychology

15%

Developmental 6%

School 3%

Clinical

36%

Counseling 10%

Areas of Specialization
  • Clinical
    • abnormal behavior and psychological disorders
    • psychologist vs. psychiatrist
  • Health psychology
    • psychological factors in physical health
  • Counseling
    • dealing with normal life situations
    • provide guidance
areas of specialization27

Industrial/Organizational 3%

Social and

Personality 8%

Biological and

Experimental

16%

Educational 3%

Other

Psychology

15%

Developmental 6%

School 3%

Clinical

36%

Counseling 10%

Areas of Specialization
  • Developmental
    • psychological change over the life span
    • social, cognitive, personality
  • School
    • counseling and guidance in school settings
  • Educational
    • learning and teaching
areas of specialization28

Industrial/Organizational 3%

Social and

Personality 8%

Biological and

Experimental

16%

Educational 3%

Other

Psychology

15%

Developmental 6%

School 3%

Clinical

36%

Counseling 10%

Areas of Specialization
  • Psychobiology
    • brain and behavior
    • studied at many levels
    • often uses animals as research model
  • Experimental
    • basic laboratory focus
    • animals or humans
    • learning, memory, motivation
  • Cognitive
    • experimental
    • human memory, perception, etc.
areas of specialization29

Industrial/Organizational 3%

Social and

Personality 8%

Biological and

Experimental

16%

Educational 3%

Other

Psychology

15%

Developmental 6%

School 3%

Clinical

36%

Counseling 10%

Areas of Specialization
  • Social
    • social influences on cognition and emotion
    • attitudes and beliefs
  • Personality
    • individual differences
    • perception by others
  • Industrial/organizational
    • people and work
    • job satisfaction
    • training and selection
professional work settings

Employment Settings of Psychologists

Business

& Industry

Private

Practice

School

Universities &

College

Government

Professional Work Settings
  • Colleges and universities
  • Clinical settings
  • Elementary and secondary schools
  • Business
  • Government