unit 3 lecture 3 recent distribution patterns dispersal centers of origin l.
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Unit 3: Lecture 3 Recent Distribution patterns, dispersal & centers of origin 1. How many genera disappear during 5 Mass extinctions? How did this contribute to development of new species? Cenozoic Eon – recent history Tertiary Period - 65-1.64 MYA Quaternary Period - 1.64-present MYA

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1. How many genera disappear during 5 Mass extinctions? How did this contribute to development of new species?
cenozoic eon recent history
Cenozoic Eon – recent history
  • Tertiary Period - 65-1.64 MYA
  • Quaternary Period - 1.64-present MYA
    • Pleistocene
      • 1.65 mya – 10,000ya
    • Holocene – 10,000 years ago
2 what happened during the tertiary period 65 1 64 mya
2. What happened during the Tertiary Period, 65-1.64 MYA
  • A 10 km diameter asteroid hit the north coast of the present-day Yucatan (the impact created a sharp sediment boundary between the Cretaceous and the Tertiary periods called the K-T boundary).
  • about 75% of the previously existing plant and animal species disappeared.
  • No species of land animal weighing more than about 55 pounds survived into the Tertiary.
  • Set the stage for the Cenozoic “age of the mammals”
3 what types of animal were present in thetertiary period
3. What types of animal were present in theTertiary Period?
  • Saber tooth tiger
  • brontotherium
  • Camels, hippos in western US
  • Horses in North America
  • Mastodons in IL
4 describe the quaternary period 1 64 present mya
4. Describe the Quaternary Period, 1.64-present MYA
  • During this period four Ice Ages, separated by warmer interglacial periods, covered the northern land areas.
  • ice y advanced and retreated, climate zones and mammal faunas moved across the continents via the Bering region and Panama Isthmus.
  • giant representatives of nearly every order of mammals, kangaroo and lemur, to deer, beaver, and mammoth
5 what are the 2 subdivisions of the quaternary period
5. What are the 2 subdivisions of the Quaternary Period?
  • two epochs;
    • Pleistocene (two mya to ten thousand years ya)
    • Holocene (ten thousand years ago to the present day).
6 what theories explain the loss of pleistocene mammals
6.What theories explain the loss of pleistocene mammals?
  • Evidence for hunting –
    • human association with extinction – mastodon tusks show increase in birth rate prior to extinction.
    • Linguistics show pattern of human distribution
    • Human access to areas where death occurs
  • Disease
pleistocene extinction con t
Pleistocene extinction con’t
  • Climate change - 2006 report exonerates humans from slaughtering the large mammals.
    • mammoths and horses became extinct,
    • wapiti, bison and moose survived and thrived,
    • suggesting that the faunal change was a function of ecological change rather than human-induced "overkill
7 what evidence do we have of pleistocene megafauna extinctions
7. What evidence do we have of Pleistocene Megafauna Extinctions?
  • Human Migration to The New World
  • data: excavation and dating
  • Caves
  • geneticslinguistics
  • [Beringian Migration] (Alternatives) (Alternatives)
  • Overkill [Martin 1973] (text)
8 describe the impact of the pleistocene extinctions in the midwest us
8. Describe the impact of the pleistocene extinctions in the midwest US.
  • Midwest, US
  • Pleiostocene extinctions – impact on the midwest
midwest evidence
Midwest evidence
  • Mastodon remains
  • Lincoln – mammoth tooth
9 what are the la brea tar pits where located what do you find there
9. What are the La Brea Tar pits? Where located? What do you find there?
  • La Brea tar pit: http://www.tarpits.org/
10 what was the global pattern of megafauna extinction
10. What was the global pattern of Megafauna extinction?
  • Compare this graph to human migration patterns
11 describe the holocene epoch 10 000 years
11. Describe the Holocene epoch - 10,000 years
  • To observe a Holocene environment, - look around
  • the time since the end of the last major glacial epoch, or "ice age."
  • has been a relatively warm period in between ice ages.
  • Another name for the Holocene that is sometimes used is the Anthropogene, the "Age of Man."
12 what has been the human distribution pattern
12. What has been the Human distribution pattern?
  • 150 mya Africa….. 10-11 New world vs 40-90 Old world
out of africa
Out of africa
  • Homo sapiens archaic 400 - 130 Ka Homo neanderthalinsis? 300 - 30 Ka

Africa spread Europe

14 describe primate characteristics
14. Describe primate characteristics?
  • Evolutionary Trends
  • Bipedalism vs. arboreal
  • Size: early Australopithecenes chimp-sized
  • Cranial Capacity: three-fold increase
  • Neotony[.]Birth Canal: infant cranium too large
  • Parental Care: born helpless
  • Dietary Specialization: tooth size & shape, enamel
15 describe changes in brain size in hominids
15. Describe changes in brain size in hominids.
  • Massive increase in brain size – language, reasoning – (cerebrum)
16 describe human adaptations to dispersal
16. Describe Human adaptations to dispersal
  • Hominid Adaptations to dispersal
  • Wood – all primates
  • Stone tools: 2.5 Mya Ethiopia
  • Fire: probably H. erectus 1.8 Ma - 300 Ka
  • Clothing: H. sapiens
  • Domestic animals
17 name5 other primates
17.  Name5 other Primates
  • Family Hominidae (great apes and humans)
  • Genus Gorilla(gorillas)
    • Species Gorilla beringei(eastern gorilla)
    • Species Gorilla gorilla(western gorilla)
      • Subspecies Gorilla gorilla gorilla(western lowland gorilla)
  • Genus Homo(humans)
    • Species Homo sapiens(human)
  • Genus Pan(chimpanzees)
    • Species Pan paniscus(bonobo)
    • Species Pan troglodytes(chimpanzee)
  • Genus Pongo(orangutan)
    • Species Pongo abelii(Sumatran orangutan)
    • Species Pongo pygmaeus(Bornean orangutan)
18 describe changes in primates over the past 100 million years
18. Describe changes in primates over the past 100 million years.
  • Primate history
    • Characteristics
    • Skulls
19 what are the criteria for cain s centers of origin
19. What are the criteria for Cain’s Centers of Origin
  • Location of greatest number of species (taxa)
  • Location of greatest concentration of individuals (dominance)
  • Location of primitive and closely-related forms
  • Location of largest individuals
  • Location of greatest productivity and stability
  • Center of lines of migration radiating from a location
  • Location of greatest breadth of habitats (least dependence on rare habitat)
  • Center of lines of clonal variation radiating from location
  • Geographical affinity (all southern hemisphere)
  • Greatest number of overlapping distributions
20 centers of origin sea snakes
20. Centers of origin – sea snakes
  • Restricted by temperature 20 oC
  • Cenozoic origin
  • Distributions overlap with nearest relatives (Elapidae, cobras)
  • Australian-New Guinea origin
    • Highest diversity (30 sp.)
    • Location of closest relatives
    • Most primitive genus in New Guinea
sea snake centers of origin
Sea snake centers of origin
  • Sea snake distribution
21 how does historical biogeography support coo theories
21. How does Historical Biogeography support COO theories?
  • rigorous logic and hypothesis testing
  • rigorous phylogenetic systematics
  • use of area cladograms
  • emphasis on fossil data
  • Darters example
darters con t
Darters con’t
  • Darter center of origin & distribution pattern
  • Compare cladogram w/ distribution
22 write a paragraph comparing continents dispersal trends in mammals
22. Write a paragraph comparing continents & dispersal trends in mammals.
  • Mammal family distribution & similarity
23 write a paragraph comparing continents dispersal trends in flowering plants
23. Write a paragraph comparing continents & dispersal trends in flowering plants.
  • Plant families and similarity – dispersal
24 write a paragraph comparing continents dispersal trends in red jack pines
24. Write a paragraph comparing continents & dispersal trends in red & jack pines.
  • Red pine dispersal at end of ice ages in US.
references
References:
  • http://geo.arizona.edu/Antevs/ecol438/lect11.html
  • Mastodon: http://www.beringia.com/images/Teichmann/MASTODON.JPG
  • Mammoth teeth
  • http://www.museum.state.il.us/exhibits/larson/images/mmpr_m3_small.gif
  • Similodon: http://www.netbiologen.dk/zoologi/images/st6a.jpg
  • Pleistocene glaciation: http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/map/T041365A.gif
  • Man: http://pratyeka.org/prokudin-gorskii/a-sart-old-man-1911.jpg
  • La brea tar pits: http://www.stonecover.com/albums/TarPits/DSC_6659.highlight.jpg
  • http://www.walkinginla.com/2002/Oct27/10_27_02.html
  • Bering:http://www.foreignlands.org/Geographical_/Arctica/BeringBridge/a_BeringLandBridge.jpg