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2003 Research Update For 2004 Symposium Sports Nutrition With Strength and Conditioning Exercise Physiology and Spine/General Studies with Practical Application G. Douglas Andersen, DC, DACBSP, CCN INFLUENCE OF DEHYDRATION AND REHYDRATION ON BASKETBALL FREE THROW ACCURACY Methods:

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g douglas andersen dc dacbsp ccn

2003 Research UpdateFor 2004 Symposium Sports NutritionWith Strength and ConditioningExercise Physiology andSpine/General Studies with Practical Application

G. Douglas Andersen, DC, DACBSP, CCN

influence of dehydration and rehydration on basketball free throw accuracy

INFLUENCE OF DEHYDRATION AND REHYDRATION ON BASKETBALL FREE THROW ACCURACY

Methods:

16 males performed four 90-minute sessions

1. Control – played cards

2. Basketball with no fluids

3. Basketball with water

4. Basketball with sports drink

After 90 minutes subjects then shot 20 free throws

Results:

When players were dehydrated, free throw accuracy was 58%.

When players were rehydrated with sports drink, accuracy was 71%

Solera, A., Salazar, W. Influence of Dehydration and Rehydration on Basketball Free Throw Accuracy. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S29.

slide3

EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING INTENSITY AND AMOUNT ON VISCERAL, SUBCUTANEOUS AND TOTAL ABDOMINAL FAT: STRRIDE

Methods:

111 overweight adults, ages 40-65, 8 month study

Results:

Activity Visceral Fat Change Abdominal Fat Change Body Weight

Control +10% +4.7% +2.4 pounds

Walk 12 mi/wk +3.3% +1.9% -2.9 pounds

Jog 12 mi/wk -5.9% -3% -2.4 pounds

Run 20 mi/wk -10% -8.9% -7.7 pounds

Slentz, C.A., Duscha, B.D., Aiken, L.B., Jonhson, J.L., Ketchum, K.J., Tanner, C.J., Kelly, L.K., Houmard, J.A., Kraus, W.E. Effects of Exercise Training Intensity and Amount on Visceral, Subcutaneous and Total Abdominal Fat: Strride. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S34.

slide4

SWEAT AND SODIUM LOSSES IN NCAA DIVISION I FOOTBALL PLAYERS WITH A HISTORY OF WHOLE-BODY MUSCLE CRAMPING

Methods:

10 Division I football players, 5 with a history of cramping

Studied on a pre-season practice day, 2.5 hour AM and 2.5 hour PM practice in

full gear

Results:

Never Cramp Cramp

Fluid Intake 2.8 L 2.6 L

Sweat Loss 3.5 L 4 L

Sweat Na 2.4 gm 5.2 gm

Net Loss 23 oz 46 oz

Stofan, J.R., Zachwieja, J.J., Horswill, C.A., Lacambra, M., Murray, R., Eichner, E.R., Anderson, S. Sweat and Sodium Losses in NCAA Division I Football Players with a History of Whole-Body Muscle Cramping. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S48.

hyponatremia and sodium loss

HYPONATREMIA AND SODIUM LOSS

Methods:

111 marathoners from 4 races volunteered for pre- and post-race

testing

Results:

Hyponatremics drank more fluid and lost more sodium in sweat.

No differences between genders

Chorley, J.N., Cianca, J.C., Divine, J.G., Hew, T. Hyponatremia and Sodium Loss. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S246.

HYPONATREMIA AND ADVENTURE RACING

  • Methods:
  • Participants in an adventure race that ranged from 18 to 30 hours
  • Results:
  • Average weight loss 2% of body weight
  • 50% of participants were hyponatremic
  • Abbott, K.D., Nichols, J.F. Hyponatremia and Adventure Racing. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S246.
snapping hip syndrome

SNAPPING HIP SYNDROME

TypeCausePresenting ComplaintExamTx

External Posterior, proximal snapping lateral Patient lateral Soft tissue

ITB or anterior to greater trochanter snapping side up mobilization,

gluteous maximus Flex + extend hip modalities,

rubs over greater keep leg neutral stretch ITB

trochanter palpate

Internal Iliopsoas tendon snapping ant./medial Patient supine Stretch and

rubs over anterior to greater trochanter Flex, abduct & strengthen

capsule or ilio- externally rotate hip. hip flexors.

pectineal eminence As you return to Soft tissue

neutral(Ext/add/ mobilization.

int.rot.) palpate

Intraartular Loose bodies, Deep snapping R/O Ext/int refer to ortho

acetabular tear, X-ray, CT or MRI

chronic subluxation or

(in kids) dislocation

Idjadi, J., Meislin, R., Symptomatic Snapping Hip. The Physician and Sports Medicine 32 (1) 2004; 25-31

physical activity and children

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND CHILDREN

In children ages 9 to 16, as total physical activity (TPA) increased, fasting

insulin decreased1

TPA decreased between ages 9 and 161

In children ages 6 to 8, TPA declined with age.2

In children ages 7 to 10, TPA increase leads to increased bone mineral density,

decreased blood pressure, decreased total cholesterol.3

In children ages 5 to 12, as TPA increased, bone mineral density increased.4

Children ages 8 to 9, were observed during recess on 4 consecutive days. As

body mass index increased, activity decreased; that is, the heavier the child,

the less active.5

1Hurtig Wennlöf, A., Yngve, A., Sjöström, M. Fasting Serum Insulin as Response to Total Physical Activity in Healthy Children. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S64.

2Economos, C.D., Shea, K., Socorso, E. Age, Gender and Weight Status Predict Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels in Early Elementary School Children. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S63.

3Mjaavatn, P.E., Aa, K., Gundersen, U., Segberg, L., Bjørkelund, L.A. Physical Activity and Health-Related Variables in 6-9-Year-Old Norwegian Children. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S63.

4DiMarco, N.M., Greathouse, L.V., Essery, E.V., Kallio, A.K., Nichols, D.L., Sanborn, C.F. Bone and Connective Tissue. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S76.

5Foley, J.T., Yun, J.K. The Effect of Body Mass Index Level on Physical Activity During Recess. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S161.

childhood activity boys versus girls

CHILDHOOD ACTIVITY, BOYS VERSUS GIRLS

Boys, ages 6 to 8, are more active than girls of the same age.1

Boys, ages 10 to 11, are more active than girls of the same age.2

Boys, ages 9 to 16, are more active than girls of the same age.3

1Economos, C.D., Shea, K., Socorso, E. Age, Gender and Weight Status Predict Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels in Early Elementary School Children. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S63.

2Matsuzaka, A., Matsuzaka, K., Wilk, B., Bar-Or, O. Relationship Between Physical Activity and Aerobic Fitness in Children. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S64.

3 Hurtig Wennlöf, A., Yngve, A., Sjöström, M. Fasting Serum Insulin as Response to Total Physical Activity in Healthy Children. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S64.

cardiovascular risk

CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

Overweight adults who exercise have a stronger link to cardiovascular disease

than adults who were unfit.1

Adults with better cardiovascular fitness have lower levels of C-reactive

protein.2

Lower levels of fitness coupled with higher levels of abdominal fat lead to

higher levels of insulin (even in 90-year-olds!)3

1Christou, D.D., Gates, P.E., Seals, D.R. Is Fatness or Fitness the Best Predictor of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile in Healthy Men? Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S67.

2Reis, J.P., LaMonte, M.J., Ainsworth, B.E., Durstine, J.L. C-Reactive Protein and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in an Adult Population. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S68.

3Racette, S.B., Evans, E.M., Villareal, D.T., Holloszy, J.O. Fitness and Abdominal Fat Predict Insulin Action in Old Adults. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S68.

slide10

EFFECTS OF INCREASING FLUID MILK INTAKE ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN RESPONSE TO RESISTANCE TRAINING IN ADOLESCENT FEMALES

Methods:

Girls, ages 12 to 17, given 24 ounces of milk for 12 weeks, or 24

ounces of juice for 12 weeks.

Results:

Milk group gained bone mineral density, especially in the lumbar spine.

Juice group did not gain BMD

Gómez, A.L., Volek, J.S., Rubin, M R, French, D.N., Sharman, M.J., Ratamess, N.A., McGuigian, M.R., Scheett, T.P., Kraemer, W.J. Effects of Increasing Fluid Milk Intake on Bone Mineral Density in Response to Resistance Training in Adolescent Females. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S76

effects of exercise combined with diet on bone mass and biochemical bone markers during weight loss

EFFECTS OF EXERCISE COMBINED WITH DIET ON BONE MASSAND BIOCHEMICAL BONE MARKERS DURING WEIGHT LOSS

Methods:

Women, ages 35 to 48, went on a weight-loss diet for 14 weeks.

Results:

In the non-exercise group, bone mineral density decreased.

In the group that performed resistance exercise, i.e., weight lifting, bone

mineral density loss was prevented.

Nakata, Y., Ohkawara, K., Lee, D.J., Tanaka, K. Effects of Exercise Combined with Diet on Bone Mass and Biochemical Bone Markers During Weight Loss. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S80.

slide12

ADDITION OF FAT TO POST-EXERCISE MEALS DOES NOT ALTER THE EXERCISE-INDUCED REDUCTION IN FASTING PLASMA TRIGLYCERIDES

Methods:

On 2 occasions men biked 90 minutes including 30 minutes of high

intensity intervals, followed by a low or high fat dinner.

Meal 1 – 12 gm of fat, Meal 2 – 165 gm of fat

Carb content was the same.

Pre exercise triglyceride .52 and .55 mm before LF and HF

Next morning triglyceride .37 and .32 mm after LF and HF

Conclusion:

In this study, a high-fat meal (165 gm) did not alter the benefits of exercise

induced triglyceride clearance.

Kaufman, A.E., Fox, A.K., Horowitz, J.F. Addition of Fat to Post-Exercise Meals Does Not Alter the Exercise-Induced Reduction in Fasting Plasma Triglycerides. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S85.

effects of exercise intensity on postprandial lipemia in patients with hypertriglyceridemia

EFFECTS OF EXERCISE INTENSITY ON POSTPRANDIAL LIPEMIA IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA

Methods:

Ten 40-year-old males were studied.

Subjects jogged 1 hour at 40%, 60%, or 70% of maximum heart rate

12 hours before a meal containing 100 gm of fat was consumed.

Results:

From blood draws 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after eating.

Triglyceride concentration mg/dl

Control 369

40% jog 325

60% jog 316

70% jog 294

Zhang, J.Q., Ji, L.L., Fretwell, V., Nunez, L., Zhang, K.Y., Hart, C., Yao, W.X. Effects of Exercise Intensity on Postprandial Lipemia in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S87.

slide14

LOW CARBOHYDRATE DIET INDUCES WEIGHT LOSS AND CHANGES IN FUEL OXIDATION DURING EXERCISE IN OBESE ADULTS

Methods:

13 obese young adults were put on a low-carbohydrate diet.

Subjects were instructed what foods to avoid but were not instructed on

quantities.

The study was to test changes in fuel oxidation.

Results:

Low carb, high protein, high fat diet did increase fat oxidation during

activity.

Analysis of diet diaries revealed an unusual finding. Calories before the

study were 2599, calories during the study were 1473.

Komorowski, J.I., Schuler, G., Murrin, J., Farnoush, M., Doucet, E., Kerr, J. Low Carbohydrate Diet Induces Weight Loss and Changes in Fuel Oxidation During Exercise in Obese Adults. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S87.

dose of exercise to promote long term weight loss in overweight adults

DOSE OF EXERCISE TO PROMOTE LONG-TERM WEIGHT LOSS IN OVERWEIGHT ADULTS

Methods:

184 obese women were in a 12-month program.

Subjects were divided into 3 groups, all of which exercised 5 days a week.

Groups were prescribed exercise ranging from 30 to 60 minutes a day.

Results:

No group completely met their requirements. The 60-minute group averaged

265/300 minutes per week. The 45-minute group averaged 173/225 per week.

The 30-minute group averaged 113/150 per week.

The 60-minute group lost 15%, the 45-minute group lost 10%, and the 30

minute group lost 7% bw.

Jakicic, J.M., Gallagher, K.I., Ferguson, E., Marcus, B.H., Napoitano, M. Dose of Exercise To Promote Long-Term Weight Loss in Overweight Adults. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S106

exercise hematology

EXERCISE HEMATOLOGY

Study:

280 boys and girls, ages 16 to 19, were tested.

55% of the girls were iron deficient, 29% of the boys were iron deficient,

and 3% of the entire group was anemic.

Serum ferritin less than 16 mcg/dl was defined as iron deficient. Serum

ferritin less than 20 mcg/dl was defined as probable iron deficient.

Landahl, G., Börjesson, M., Rödjer, S. Exercise Hematology. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S126

prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia in top level basketball players

PREVALENCE OF IRON DEFICIENCY AND ANEMIA IN TOP-LEVEL BASKETBALL PLAYERS

Study:

103 teenage boys and girls and adults rated as top-level basketball

players.

Testing revealed iron deficiency in 15% of the males, 35% of the females.

Anemia was present in 18% of the males, 38% of the females.

Iron-deficient anemia (both) were present in 5% of males and 22% of

females.

Iron deficiency was defined as serum ferritin less than 20 mcg/dl. Anemia

was defined as hemoglobin less than 14 gm/dl for boys and less than 12 gm/dl

for girls.

Constantini, N.W., Dubnov, G. Prevalance of Iron Deficiency and Anemia in Top-Level Basketball Players. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S126.

the relation between trunk strength measures and lumbar disc deformation during stoop type lifting

THE RELATION BETWEEN TRUNK STRENGTH MEASURES AND LUMBAR DISC DEFORMATION DURING STOOP TYPE LIFTING

Methods:

12 50-year-old males under lateral video fluoroscopy lifted

No load 4 times a minute for 15 minutes

A 25-pound milk crate 4 times a minute for 15 minutes

Subjects were also measured for strength of trunk flexion and extension via a

dynamometer and abdominal endurance by the number of curl-ups performed in

60 seconds.

Results:

Subjects with greater abdominal strength showed less shear deformation when

the trunk was flexed with a load.

Subjects with greater abdominal endurance show less shear deformation when

the trunk was erect.

Subjects with greater spinal erector muscle strength showed less shear

deformation when the trunk was erect.

DeBeliso, M.A., O’Shea, J.P., Harris, C., Adams, K.J. The Relation Between Trunk Strength Measures and Lumbar Disc Deformation During Stoop Type Lifting. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S134.

the effect of an acute dosage of an antioxidant mixture upon fatigue during intermittent work

THE EFFECT OF AN ACUTE DOSAGE OF AN ANTIOXIDANT MIXTURE UPON FATIGUE DURING INTERMITTENT WORK

Study:

25,000 IU beta carotene, 400 IU vitamin E, 500 mg vitamin C taken in a

single dose did not improve work capacity.

Guillory, I., Nelson, A.G., Glickman, E. The Effect of an Acute Dosage of an Antioxidant Mixture Upon Fatigue During Intermittent Work. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S145.

effect of vitamin c supplementation on immune parameters following intermittent shuttle running

EFFECT OF VITAMIN C SUPPLEMENTATION ON IMMUNE PARAMETERS FOLLOWING INTERMITTENT SHUTTLE RUNNING

Methods:

7 days of 800 mg of vitamin C or placebo followed by a vigorous shuttle

run.

Results:

No differences in immune or inflammatory response (equally increased in

both groups).

Hurst, T.L., Bailey, D.M., Williams, C., Powell, J.R. Effect of Vitamin C Supplementation on Immune Parameters Following Intermittent Shuttle Running. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S156.

antioxidants do not attenuate the rise in lipid hydroperoxides observed at 4300 m elevation

ANTIOXIDANTS DO NOT ATTENUATE THE RISE IN LIPID HYDROPEROXIDES OBSERVED AT 4300 M ELEVATION

Methods:

3 weeks of 10,000 IU beta carotene, 200 IU vitamin E, 250 mg vitamin

C, 50 mcg selenium, and 15 mg of zinc.

Results:

Did not prevent an increase in lipid peroxidation at high elevation

compared to placebo.

Friedlander, A.L., Subudhi, A.W., Hagobian, T.A., Jacobs, K.A., Fattor, J.A., Stone, K.S., Rock, P.B., Muza, S.R., Fulco, C.S., Hoffman, A.R., Cymerman, A. Antioxidants Do Not Attenuate the Rise in Lipid Hydroperoxides Observed at 4300 M Elevation. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S163.

slide22

ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT REDUCE INCIDENCE OR SEVERITY OF ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS AT 4300 M

Methods:

3 weeks of 10,000 IU beta carotene, 200 IU vitamin E, 250 mg vitamin

C, 50 mcg selenium, and 15 mg of zinc.

Results:

Did not reduce incidence of acute mountain sickness.

Jacobs, K.A., Muza, S.R., Pidgeon, S., Hagobian, T.A., Subudhi, A.W., Stone, K.S., Fattor, J.A., Fulco, C.S., Rock, P.B., Cymerman, A., Friedlander, A.L. Antioxidant Supplementation Does Not Reduce Incidence or Severity of Acute Mountain Sickness at 4300 M. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S164.

antioxidant supplementation has no effect on muscle damage following an ultramarathon run

ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION HAS NO EFFECT ON MUSCLE DAMAGE FOLLOWING AN ULTRAMARATHON RUN

Methods:

400 IU vitamin E and 1000 mg vitamin C 6 weeks prior to and 1 week after a

31-mile run.

Results:

No effect on plasma markers of muscle damage.

Mastaloudis, A., Widrick, J., Traber, M.G. Antioxidant Supplementation Has No Effect on Muscle Damage Following an Ultramarathon Run. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S197.

dietary antioxidant supplementation does not affect cytokine response to eccentric exercise

DIETARY ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT AFFECT CYTOKINE RESPONSE TO ECCENTRIC EXERCISE

Methods:

400 mg vitamin C, 800 IU vitamin E for 29 days prior to and 6 days after a

20 minute eccentric cycle exercise designed to damage muscles

Results:

Plasma creatine kinase increased 11 fold placebo, 3 fold antioxidant.

All other markers including IL/TNF/mRNA were unchanged.

Condlin, M.L., Kellogg, M.D., Young, A.J. Dietary Antioxidant Supplementation Does Not Affect Cytokine Response to Eccentric Exercise. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S156.

are men s perceptions of a desirable body image related to the actual preferences of women

ARE MEN’S PERCEPTIONS OF A DESIRABLE BODY IMAGE RELATED TO THE ACTUAL PREFERENCES OF WOMEN?

Methods:

206 college males and females were shown 16 male figures of varying body

types.

Results:

The males perceived their current body to be less muscular than they would

like.

The body males thought females would prefer was more muscular.

The most desirable male body picked by the women was less muscular than

the males thought they would pick.

Women knew that men thought they preferred a more muscular physique.

Downing, A.J., Giuliano, T.A., Smith, J.C. Are Men’s Perceptions of a Desirable Body Image Related to the Actual Preferences of Women? Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S140.

the effects of echinacea on the mucosal immune response and upper respiratory tract infections

THE EFFECTS OF ECHINACEA ON THE MUCOSAL IMMUNE RESPONSE AND UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

Methods:

32 adults, ages 19 to 46.

A series of intense wingate tests known to decrease mucosal immunity were

given (decreased mucosal immunity increases rate of upper respiratory tract

infection).

Results:

4 weeks of echinacea or placebo revealed no change in the percentage of the

number of upper respiratory tract infections caught by each group.

There was a significant difference in disease length – 1.7 days for echinacea,

5.4 days for placebo.

Hall, H.L., Fahlman, M.M., Engels, H.J. The Effects of Echinacea on the Mucosal Immune Response and Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S156.

slide27

DOSE-EFFECT RESPONSE OF 80 WEEKS OF RESISTANCE TRAINING ON MUSCLE STRENGTH AND MUSCLE MASS OF OLDER MEN AND WOMEN

Methods:

46 men and women, ages 60 to 70, in an 80-week exercise program performed

either 2 or 3 times per week, were divided into 4 groups.

2 high intensity – weight lifting (80% of 1 repetition max, 8 repetitions to failure).

2 low intensity – weight lifting (40% of 1 repetition max, 16 repetitions).

Results:

Gains were as follows:

Muscle mass and strength gains were the greatest in high intensity 3 times a

week, followed by high intensity 2 times a week, low intensity 3 times a week,

and low intensity 2 times a week.

Conclusion:

High intensity twice a week is more beneficial than low intensity 3 times a week.

Bemben, M.G., Bemben, D.A. Dose-Effect Response of 80 Weeks of Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass of Older Men and Women. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S171.

effects of red pepper intake on muscle oxygen consumption in humans

EFFECTS OF RED PEPPER INTAKE ON MUSCLE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION IN HUMANS

Methods:

1 gm of dried, powdered, red hot pepper increased metabolic rate for 2-1/2

hours.

Results:

The red pepper group had a 10% increase in pulmonary oxygen uptake and

a 15% increase in muscle oxygen consumption.

Ueda, C., Hamaoka, T., Murase, N., Sako, T., Murakami, M., Kime, R., Homma, T., Nagasawa, T., Kitahara, A., Ichimura, S., Motobe, M., Nakagawa, N., Katsumura, T. Effects of Red Pepper Intake on Muscle Oxygen Consumption in Humans. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S248.

acute effects of trans 10 cis 12 conjugated linoleic acid consumption on fuel use

ACUTE EFFECTS OF TRANS-10,CIS-12 CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID CONSUMPTION ON FUEL USE

An acute (4.8 gm) dose of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) 80 minutes before

exercise was given to 13 participants.

Results:

CLA was absorbed in 8/13 subjects.

CLA did not affect resting metabolic rate, exercise metabolic rate, or fuel

source indicators (glucose, glycerol, lipolysis).

Conclusion:

Animal studies that show acute ingestion raises metabolic rate and fat

oxidation. This was not seen in humans.

Shute, M., Rankin, J.W., Herbein, J. Acute Effects of Trans-10,Cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Consumption on Fuel Use. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S248

the effects of acute citrus aurentium ingestion on energy expenditure in mildly obese subjects

THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE CITRUS AURENTIUM INGESTION ON ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN MILDLY OBESE SUBJECTS

24 subjects mean age 25 - mean BMI 26.5

3 doses on day 1 + am dose day 2 tested pre/post

Results:

Day 1 Day 2

Calorie Expenditure CA 1.18 kcal/min 1.26 kcal/min

placebo 1.26 kcal/min 1.24 kcal/min

Oxygen update CA 230 mL/min 250 mL/min

placebo 250 mL/min 250 mL/min

CA (Synephrine) increased calorie expenditure 8%

Seifert, J.G., Burke, E.R., Devonish, J., Nelson, A., Bacharach, D.W. The Effects of Acute Citrus Aurentium Ingestion on Energy Expenditure in Mildly Obese Subjects. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S248.

repeated exercise performance and caffeine ingestion

REPEATED EXERCISE PERFORMANCE AND CAFFEINE INGESTION

Methods:

9 male caffeine users were tested on 4 occasions.

Testing consisted of morning workout (80% VO2max ride to exhaustion)

followed by a second bout 5 hours later.

Results:

AM caffeine PM caffeine AM Times PM Times

5 mg/kg/bw 2.5 mg/kg/bw 24.9 minutes 21.5 minutes

0 mg/kg/bw 0 mg/kg/bw 18.0 minutes 18.3 minutes

5 mg/kg/bw 0 mg/kg/bw 21.8 minutes 21.0 minutes

0 mg/kg/bw 5 mg/kg/bw 17.7 minutes 22.4 minutes

A single morning dose of caffeine has a carryover effect in exhaustive exercise 5

hours later.

Bell, D.G., McLellan, T.M. Repeated Exercise Performance and Caffeine Ingestion. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S267

the effects of oxygenated water on heart rate and arterial saturation responses during hypoxia

THE EFFECTS OF OXYGENATED WATER ON HEART RATE AND ARTERIAL SATURATION RESPONSES DURING HYPOXIA

Methods:

20 subjects given 20 oz of oxygenated water or placebo water following an

induced hypoxia.

Results:

There was no difference in heart rate or oxygen saturation between 2 types

of water.

Porcari, J.P., Witt, L., Foster, C., Aiuppa, T., Doberstein, S. The Effects of Oxygenated Water on Heart Rate and Arterial Saturation Responses During Hypoxia. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S269.

the effects of hmb supplementation on indices of exercise induced muscle damage in man

THE EFFECTS OF HMB SUPPLEMENTATION ON INDICES OF EXERCISE-INDUCED MUSCLE DAMAGE IN MAN

Methods:

14 days of 3 gm of HMB or placebo followed by a single bout of 3 sets of

10 repetitions of eccentric arm curls designed to provoke muscle damage.

Results:

HMB had reduced DOMs 24 hours post exercise.

HMB had lower levels of plasma creatine kinase activity.

Van Someren, K.A., Edwards, A.J., Howatson, G. The Effects of HMB Supplementation on Indices of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Man. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S270.

slide34

EFFECTS OF ORAL D- RIBOSE SUPPLEMENTATION ON ANAEROBIC CAPACITY AND SELECTED METABOLIC MARKERS IN HEALTHY MALES

19 trained males

Pre and post supplementation Wingate sprint (30sec) tests separated by 3

minute recovery

Placebo or Ribose 10gr/d for 5 days

Ribose did not alter peak power, average power, torque, fatigue index,

lactate, ammonia, glucose, uric acid or anaerobic exercise capacity.

Kreider, R.B., Melton, C., et al Effects or Oral D-Ribose Supplementation on Anaerobic capacity and Selected Metabolic Markers in Healthy Males. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2003, 13, 76-86

rehydration with fluids containing betaine running performance and metabolism in a 31 c environment

REHYDRATION WITH FLUIDS CONTAINING BETAINE: RUNNING PERFORMANCE AND METABOLISM IN A 31°C ENVIRONMENT

Betaine at 5 gm per liter when added to sports drink improved sprint time to

exhaustion following 75 minutes of running in 88° weather.

This improvement was not seen with a placebo beverage, or a placebo

beverage and betaine. It was a greater improvement than 6% carbohydrate –

electrolyte drink

Conclusion:

Betaine added to a carbohydrate electrolyte drink may be synergistic.

Armstrong, L.E., Roti, M.W., Hatch, H.L., Sutherland, J.W., Mahood, N.V., Clements, J.M., Seen, A.D., Fiala, K.A., Craig, S.A.S., Casa, D.J., Maresh, C.M. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S311.

influence of pre exercise carbohydrate meals on a 21 km run

INFLUENCE OF PRE-EXERCISE CARBOHYDRATE MEALS ON A 21-KM RUN

Methods:

8 endurance-trained male runners, averaging 33 years of age, in a random,

crossover study.

Testing was performed on 2 occasions with a meal, 2 hours prior to testing,

that provided 15% protein, 65% carbohydrate, and 20% fat, totaling

approximately 580 calories. One meal contained high glycemic index

carbohydrates (77), the other low glycemic index carbohydrates (37). Protein

and fat sources were unchanged.

Results:

All 8 improved their time in a 21K (12.5 mile) run following the low

glycemic index meal.

Average improvement was 98 minutes versus 101 minutes.

Low glycemic index also increased fat oxidation 17.9% and decreased

carbohydrate oxidation 9.5%.

Wong, S.H., Lok, A., Morris, J. Influence of Pre-exercise Carbohydrate Meals on a 21-KM Run. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S298.

effect of moderate and high intensity aerobic exercise on body composition in overweight men

EFFECT OF MODERATE AND HIGH INTENSITY AEROBIC EXERCISE ON BODY COMPOSITION IN OVERWEIGHT MEN

Methods:

16 overweight males in the military, ages 18 to 33 years, were trained for 14

weeks.

All meals were consumed on the base.

Training protocol was as follows: 3 times a week for 5 weeks a 3K run (1.8

miles), followed by 3 times a week for 9 weeks a 4K run (2.4 miles).

One group ran with high intensity (75-90% max heart rate), the other group

with medium intensity (60-70% max heart rate).

Results:

High intensity group lost 4.91% body fat.

Medium intensity group lost 1.4% body fat.

Marra, C.C., Bottaro, M.M., Oliveira, R.J., Novacs, J.S. Effect of Moderate and High Intensity Aerobic Exercise on Body Composition in Overweight Men. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S308.

slide38

THE EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY RESISTANCE TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AMONG COLLEGIATE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

Methods:

40 Division I college football players were divided into 2 groups.

Over 10 weeks subjects used 2 exercise protocols: 1 set to failure 6-10 RM,

versus 3 sets to fatigue 6-10 RM.

Results:

The 1-set high intensity group reduced body fat by 1.5%.

The 3-set medium intensity group reduced body fat by 0.45%.

Fincher, G.E. The Effect of High Intensity Resistance Training on Body Composition Among Collegiate Football Players. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S324.

induction of low t3 syndrome in female swimmers during a competitive season

INDUCTION OF LOW T3 SYNDROME IN FEMALE SWIMMERS DURING A COMPETITIVE SEASON

Methods:

10 sub-elite adolescent female swimmers were evaluated during a 12-week

period.

Swimmers were divided into improved an unimproved groups.Results:

Testing revealed that the group that did not improve had signs of low T3

syndrome.

VanHeest, J.L., Mahoney, C.E., Cappaert, J.M., Hill, K.W., DeSouza, M.J., Rodgers, C.D. Induction of Low T3 Syndrome in Female Swimmers During a Competitive Season. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S330.

the effects of creatine on cast immobilization induced muscle atrophy and detraining

THE EFFECTS OF CREATINE ON CAST IMMOBILIZATION INDUCED MUSCLE ATROPHY AND DETRAINING

Methods:

Subjects were given 20 gm of creatine,(5gm-4x/d for 7 days),

or a placebo while 1 arm was in a cast.

The study was then repeated with the opposite arm in a cast.

Upon removal results were:

When subjects’ arms were in a cast and they consumed creatine, 0.17% lean

mass was lost on the casted arms.

Placebo beverage losses for the casted arms were 4.0%.

Single repetition strength was reduced 29% with placebo and 6% with

creatine.

Maximum number of repetitions was reduced 46% with placebo and 5%

with creatine.

Johnston, A.W., Burke, D.G., MacNeil, L.G. The Effects of Creatine on Cast Immobilization Induced Muscle Atrophy and Detraining. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S401.

oxygenated water and athletic performance

OXYGENATED WATER AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE

Methods:

5 brands of oxygenated water plus tap water were analyzed for their oxygen

content.

Results:

Brands: 1 2 3 4 5 Tap Water

mL O2 per 355 mL (12 oz) 8.9 33.7 37.3 42.6 80.2 8.9

Hampson, N.B., Pollock, N.W., Piantadosi, C.A. Oxygenated Water and Athletic Performance. JAMA.2003; 290(18): 2408-9.

oxygenated water and athletic performance42

OXYGENATED WATER AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE

  Air contains 20.9% oxygen.

Normal human breath contains 500 mL of air.

.209 x 500 = 104.5 mL O2 – average single breath

“Given that hemoglobin is already nearly saturated with oxygen during air

breathing, and that only a small amount of additional oxygen can be

dissolved in plasma, it is not surprising that oxygenated water did not

improve maximal exercise performance.” Hampson et al

Hampson, N.B., Pollock, N.W., Piantadosi, C.A. Oxygenated Water and Athletic Performance. JAMA.2003; 290(18): 2408-9.

does rejection hurt fmri study of social exclusion

DOES REJECTION HURT? FMRI STUDY OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION

Methods:

13 subjects from UCLA underwent MRI brain scans on 3 different

occasions.

1 – as bystanders

2 – as participants in a virtual video game

3 – as a participant in a video game where systematic exclusion resulted in a

sense of social rejection

Results:

As social isolation increased, so did blood flow to the anterior cingulate

cortex.

This is very similar to the blood flow pattern found in physical pain.

Social and physical pain share common neuroanatomical brain blood flow

patterns.

Eisenberger, N.I. Does Rejection Hurt? fMRI Study of Social Exclusion. Science. 2003; 302: 290-2.

a meta analysis to determine the dose response for strength development

A META-ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE THE DOSE RESPONSE FOR STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT

Methods:

140 studies with a total of 1433 subjects analyzed.

Results

Optimal Loads – maximum strength gains attained:

Untrained subjects, 60% of 1-rep maximum.

Trained subjects, 80% of 1-rep maximum.

Frequency – maximum gains attained (muscle group):

Untrained subjects, 3 times per week.

Trained subjects, 2 times per week.

Rhea, M.R., Alvar, B.A, Burkett, L.N., Ball, S.D. A Meta-Analysis to Determine the Dose Response for Strength Development. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. 2003; 35(3): 456-64.

effects of ginseng on secretory iga performance and recovery from interval exercise

EFFECTS OF GINSENG ON SECRETORY IGA, PERFORMANCE, AND RECOVERY FROM INTERVAL EXERCISE

Methods:

400 mg a day of a standardized ginseng concentrate equivalent to 2000 mg

of Panax ginseng powder or placebo was consumed for 8 weeks.

Results:

Ginseng did not enhance immune response, exercise performance, or heart

rate recovery following repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise.

Engels, H.J., Falman, M.M., Wirth, J.C. Effects of Ginseng on Secretory IgA, Performance, and Recovery from Interval Exercise. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. April 2003; 35(4): 690-6.

slide46

EFFECT OF ALPHA LIPOIC ACID COMBINED WITH CREATINE MONOHYDRATE ON HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE CREATINE AND PHOSPHAGEN CONCENTRATION

Methods:

Experienced weight lifters with higher than normal levels of creatine who eat

red meat on a regular basis were tested following 3 protocols.

Creatine 5 gm, 4 times a day for 5 days

Creatine 5 gm plus 25 gm of sucrose, 4 times a day for 5 days

Creatine 5 gm plus 25 gm of sucrose plus 250 mg of alpha lipoic acid, 4 times

a day for 5 days

Results:

When lipoic acid was added to loading regimen, there was a significant

increase in intramuscular phosphocreatine and total creatine compared to

creatine and creatine with a small amount of sugar in trained participants who

consumed red meat.

Burke, D.G, Chilibeck, P.D., Parise, G., et al. Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid Combined with Creatine Monohydrate on Human Skeletal Muscle Creatine and Phosphagen Concentration. Int. J Sport Nutr. Ex. Meta. 2003; 13(3): 294-302.

slide47

EFFECTS OF A CARBOHYDRATE-PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT ON ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE DURING EXERCISE OF VARYING INTENSITY

Methods:

12 trained cyclists on 3 separate occasions rode 3 hours of variable intensity

followed by an 85% VO2 max sprint to exhaustion.

Results:

Sprint to exhaustion times:

Placebo beverage – 13 minutes

Carbohydrate beverage (7.75% CHO) – 20 minutes

Carbohydrate-protein beverage (7.75% CHO-1.94% protein) – 27 minutes

Carbohydrate versus placebo: Endurance improved in 10 of 12 subjects with

carbohydrate

Carbohydrate-protein versus carbohydrate: Endurance improved in 10 of 12

subjects with protein

Ivy, J.L., Res, P.T., Sprague, R.C., Widzer, M.O. Effects of a Carbohydrate-Protein Supplement on Endurance Performance During Exercise of Varying Intensity. Int. J Sport Nutr. Ex. Meta. 2003; 13(3): 382-95.

vitamin d and adolescents

Vitamin D and Adolescents

Methods:

307 teens - mean age 15 were tested

Results:

40% insufficient

24% deficiency breaks down as follows:

35% of Blacks; 22% of Latinos; 17% of Asians; 6% Whites

Summer levels are 20% higher than Winter and Spring

0/307 had excessive Vitamin D levels

MacReady, N. Many Teens May Not Get Enough Vitamin D, Family Practice News, January 1 2004; P77

new side effect of iron deficiency

New Side Effect of Iron Deficiency

Restless Legs Syndrome

Study:

Women who complain of hair loss when compared to normal controls

had much lower mean Ferritin levels.

Kantor, J., Cotsarelis, G. Decreased Serum Ferritin Is Associated With Alopecia in Women, J Invest Dermatol, November 2003; 121(5) :P985-988

  • 21/22 patients with normal serum iron had resolution after Fe

supplementation

  • When serum ferritin is at 15 or below 50 mcg/dl, a high percent

respond to Fe.

Earley, C.J. Restless Legs Syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine 348 (21) 2003; 2103-9

vitamin b 12 and seniors

Vitamin B-12 and Seniors

24% deficient over 60; 32% deficient over 70; 37% deficient over 80

B-12 in food is protein bound. GI inflammation and atrophy can not

break the protein bonds.

Vitamins that are not protein bound are absorbed.

RX- Oral deficiency replacement 100-500 mcg/day (RDA 2mcg/day)

to insure enough gets absorbed.

Consider referral for IM delivering.

Zoler, MC. B12 Deficiency Can Escape Detection, Family Practice News, January 1 2004, P25

slide51

EFFECT OF POST-EXERCISE ETHANOL INTOXICATION ON THE FREE TESTOSTERONE RESPONSE TO RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN MEN

Methods:

9 physically fit subjects (10.8±1.8 body fat), ages 21 to 34, on 3 different

occasions performed each of the following:

1. Resistance exercise – 45 minute whole body circuit weight training with

a heavy load (5‑RM).

2. The same resistance workout followed by ethanol ingestion to a blood

alcohol level of 0.10 g/dL.

3. No exercise or alcohol.

slide52

EFFECT OF POST-EXERCISE ETHANOL

INTOXICATION CONTINUED

Results:

Getting intoxicated following exercise not only prevented a post-resistance

testosterone decrease, but actually increased testosterone 25% over resting

conditions. This increase was present beginning at 60 minutes post exercise.

Free testosterone continued to be elevated over the 5-hour period of

monitoring.

Recommendations:

This study must be repeated with a much larger sample size and a much

longer time period before the American Board of Chiropractic Sports

Physicians can issue a position statement recommending that our patients

get hammered following workouts.

Vingren, J.L., Koziris, L.P., Ben-Ezra, V., Kraemer, W.J. Effect of Post-Exercise Ethanol Intoxication on the Free Testosterone Response to Resistance Exercise in Men. Med. Sci. Sp. Ex. May 2003; 35(5): S330.

food psychology bonus slide
FOOD PSYCHOLOGY BONUS SLIDE
  • Carrots Study
  • Popcorn Study
  • Glass Size Study
  • M&Ms Study
  • Hershey Kiss Study