Rinderpest
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Rinderpest. Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine Suzanne Burnham, DVM Jeffrey Musser, DVM PhD 2006. Special note of thanks. Many of the excellent images and notes for this presentation are borrowed from these 2 sources

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Rinderpest l.jpg
Rinderpest

Texas A&M University

College of Veterinary Medicine

Suzanne Burnham, DVM

Jeffrey Musser, DVM PhD

2006

Rinderpest


Special note of thanks l.jpg
Special note of thanks

Many of the excellent images and notes for this presentation are borrowed from these 2 sources

  • From “Rinderpest” a presentation and notes by Dr Moritz van Vuuren, delivered at the Foreign Animal and Emerging Diseases Course, Knoxville, Tenn., 2005

  • From“Rinderpest” a presentation and notes by Dr Linda Logan delivered to many and diverse audiences including the Colorado Foreign Animal Disease Course of Aug 1-5, 2005, Plum Island Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostics Course and others

Rinderpest


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Rinderpest

  • Rinderpest (RP) is an acute or subacute, contagious viral disease of ruminants and swine, and of major importance to the cattle industry

Rinderpest


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Rinderpest

Rinderpest is characterized by high fever, lachrymal discharge, inflammation, hemorrhage, necrosis, erosions of the epithelium of the mouth and of the digestive tract, profuse diarrhea, and death.

The “four D’s” of Rinderpest:

Depression

Diarrhea

Dehydration

Death

Rinderpest


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Rinderpest

  • The virus is relatively fragile and is immunologically related to viruses that cause

  • canine distemper,

  • measles, and

  • peste des petits ruminants

Rinderpest


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Also known as “cattle plague”

rinderpest is a mucosal disease

Rinderpest


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Periodic pandemics of rinderpest throughout Africa for over 100 years….

Rinderpest


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The virus was widely distributed throughout Europe, Africa, Asia and West Asia, but never became established in either the Americas or Australia/New Zealand

Rinderpest


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Mass vaccination and eradication efforts have steadily decreased the prevalence of rinderpest in many of these areas

Rinderpest

http://spore.cta.int/spore118/images/brief01.jpg


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However, it currently remains endemic decreased the prevalence of rinderpest in many of these areas

in the Indian subcontinent, the Near East, Egypt, and sub-Saharan Africa

Rinderpest


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Rinderpest, the most dreaded decreased the prevalence of rinderpest in many of these areas

bovine plague known, has changed

the course of history many times over.

Rinderpest


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‘ Century after century, rinderpest swept west over and around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

The fall of the Roman Empire,

The conquest of Christian Europe by Charlemagne,

The French Revolution,

The impoverishment of Russia and

The colonisation of Africa.’

Rinderpest


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Rinderpest, Historic Legacy around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Concept of Quarantine & Indemnity

  • Development of the clinical thermometer

  • First mass vaccination campaign

  • First Veterinary School: 1762 in Lyon, France

Rinderpest


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Rinderpest, Historic Legacy around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Veterinary Schools: Egypt (1827), India (1872)

  • Creation of British Veterinary Dept. in 1866

  • 1st International Veterinary Congress, Hamburg 1863

  • Creation of OIE in 1920

Rinderpest


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Rinderpest around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Rinderpest is a disease reportable to the OIE.

  • It is also on the USDA list of High Consequence pathogens.

Rinderpest


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Because rinderpest is easily around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

transmissible between animals,

it is a major concern for

livestock producers

Rinderpest


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From the FAO around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

“Rinderpest is the most dreaded bovine plague -- a highly infectious viral disease that can destroy entire populations of cattle and buffalo.

Rinderpest


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Bio-weapon around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

This disease ravaged cattle herds domesticated in Asia 8-9000 years ago and was used as a bio-weapon by marauding Asian armies.

Rinderpest


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Grey Steppe Cattle around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • The secret weapons of the invaders were Grey Steppe oxen.

  • Grey steppe cattle were asymptomatic carriers shedding rinderpest virus for months provoking epidemics that devastated buffalo and cattle populations of the invaded countries.

  • The results were no transportation, untilled fields, starving peasants, and overthrown governments.

Rinderpest


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Grey Steppe Cattle around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

www.embryoplus.com/.../ images/hungrey1.jpg

www.ansi.okstate.edu/.../ greeksteppe-web-1.jpg

Rinderpest


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Rinderpest around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Rinderpest


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Rinderpest around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Etiology

  • Host range

  • Incubation

  • Clinical signs

  • Transmission

  • Diagnosis

  • Differential Diagnosis

Rinderpest


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Etiology around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Family: Paramyxociridae

  • Genus: Morbilivirus

  • Type: only one, with differences in virulence

Rinderpest


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Etiology around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Rinderpest

    electron microscopy

Rinderpest virus

www.virology.net/ Big_Virology/EM/rpv2.JPG

Rinderpest


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High Mortality around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Can be a highly

fatal disease

High morbidity,

High mortality

There is a good vaccine available and proper use of it can reduce fatality

Morbidity can be greater than 90% in cattle.

Rinderpest


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Host Range around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

All cloven-hoofed animals are susceptible (not all are clinical)

Most clinical cases occur in cattle and water buffalo

Rinderpest


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Host Range around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • European pigs are quite resistant (subclinical);

  • American javelina are very susceptible

http://home.wanadoo.nl/~schoelink/hippo%201.jpg

http://www.mobirds.org/Galleries/images/PKondrashov/Col%20peccary.jpg

Rinderpest


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Host Range around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Sheep, goats, and yak are mostly subclinical

http://www.geo.arizona.edu/dgesl/research/regional/asian_monsoon_dynamics/yak.htm

Rinderpest


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Host Range around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Camels – asymptomatic infections only

Rinderpest


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Host Range – Wild Animals around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Most cloven-footed wild animals such as bison and deer

  • Antelope

  • Wildebeest

  • Kudu

  • Eland

  • Giraffe

  • Hippopotamus

  • Gazelle

  • Warthog

Rinderpest


Incubation period l.jpg
Incubation period around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Varies with strain of RPV, dosage, and route of exposure (3-15 days)

  • Normally a range of 3-9 days (can be as short as 3-4 days in experimental infection; also, can be as long as 10-15 days with virus of low virulence)

  • Duration: 2 or more weeks

Rinderpest


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*Virus is present around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

in blood and secretions

BEFORE

symptoms appear

Rinderpest


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General Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Clinical signs include: a high fever; red patches with discharge from around the eyes, nose and mouth; frothy saliva from the mouth; constipation followed by diarrhea. After a few days, the infected animal dies.

Rinderpest


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General Clinical signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Fever

  • Depression

  • Nasal & lachrymal secretion

  • Congested mucosas

  • Mucosal erosions

  • Severe diarrhea

  • Leukopenia

  • Death

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs in cattle around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

The case definition of rinderpest is ocular and nasal discharges with any two of the additional signs:

  • fever

  • erosions in the mouth

  • diarrhea

  • dehydration

  • death

Rinderpest


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Clinical signs in cattle around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Two major forms of disease

  • Acute or Classic form

  • Peracute form

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs in cattle around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded (Peracute Form)

  • Most often found in highly susceptible young and newborn animals

  • No prodromal signs

  • High fever (104-107 °F)

  • Congested mucous membranes

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs in cattle around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded (Acute Form)

  • Acute (classic) form characterized by pyrexia, erosive stomatitis, gastroenteritis, dehydration, and death

  • Four stages

    • Incubation period

    • Febrile period

    • Mucous membrane congestion

    • Gastrointestinal signs

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs in cattle around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded (Acute Form)

  • Fever - 104 to 107°F (40-42°C)

  • Serous oculo-nasal discharge

  • Leukopenia

  • Depression

  • Anorexia

  • Constipation followed by diarrhea

  • Oral erosions

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs in cattle around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded (Acute Form)

  • Decreases in fever and viral titer

  • Diarrhea (may be watery or hemorrhagic)

  • Dehydration, emaciation

  • Prostration and death 6 to 12 days after onset of illness

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

“Shooting” diarrhea

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

In Africa this also includes corneal opacity which has been associated with rinderpest in buffalos and lesser kudus but has also been noted in calves together with dermatitis.

Rinderpest


Clinical signs43 l.jpg
Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Early

    serous ocular discharge (Epiphora)

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Depression

Diarrhea

Dehydration

Death

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Photophobia

  • Conjunctivitis

Rinderpest


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Field case of rinderpest from Libya. around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

This animal had lacrimation,

diarrhea, anorexia as well as a fever,

increased heart and respiratory rates.

Rinderpest


Clinical signs47 l.jpg
Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Early focal mucosal erosions

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Early erosions – rinderpest or trauma ?

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Inflammation and necrosis of cheek papillae

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Inflammation of cheek papillae

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Mucosal erosions – “cigarette burns”

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Purulent discharges

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Purulent discharges

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Excessive Salivation

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Advanced mucosal erosions

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Advanced mucosal erosions

African Lineage 1

Southern Sudan 1998

Rinderpest


Clinical signs57 l.jpg
Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Shallow

erosions

in the mouth

Note how these

have a sharp

margin

Rinderpest


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Rinderpest around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded


Clinical signs59 l.jpg
Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Extensive mucosal erosion

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Erosion under the tongue

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Profuse diarrhea and dysentery

Rinderpest


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Dehydration, emaciation and collapse around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Rinderpest


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Dehydration and death around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Rinderpest


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Convalescence around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

healing mucosal ulceration

Rinderpest


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Convalescence around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

eroded cheek papillae

Rinderpest


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Convalescence around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

muzzle skin sloughing

Rinderpest


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Convalescence around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Dried ocular discharge

and

nasal excoriation

Rinderpest


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Lesions around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Eroded hard palate

Rinderpest


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Lesions around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Gastro-enteritis

Rinderpest


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Lesions around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Hemorrhagic mesenteric lymph nodes

Rinderpest


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Lesions around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Hemorrhagic Peyer’s patches

Rinderpest


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Lesions around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Linear petaechial haemorrhages in colon

Rinderpest


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Lesions around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

“Zebra striping” in the colon

Rinderpest


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Lesions around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Rinderpest


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Intestinal Lesions around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Rinderpest


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Terminal around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded Rinderpest

  • Epiphora, conjunctivitis

  • Necrotic stomatitis

  • Diarrhea

Rinderpest


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Less virulent form of Rinderpest around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs: Kudus around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • ophthalmia

keratitis and copious discharge

cataract and uveitis

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs: around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded swine

  • Inapparent infection accompanied by modest fever

  • Pyrexia, prostration, conjunctivitis, erosions of buccal mucosa, death

Rinderpest


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Clinical Signs: around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded sheep and goats

  • Clinical signs less precise that those in cattle

  • Variable pyrexia and anorexia

  • Inconsistent diarrhea

Rinderpest


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Transmission around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Direct Contact with infected animal

    • Respiratory and lachrymal secretions

    • Feces

    • Other body fluids

  • Carriers:

    • Unknown…..wildlife?

Rinderpest


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Transmission around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Aerosol

  • Vectors –tabanids*

  • Ingestion

  • Fomites

Rinderpest


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Transmission around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

There is no vertical transmission, arthropod vector, or carrier state. This makes Rinderpest virus an ideal virus to be targeted for eradication.

Rinderpest


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Diagnosis around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Samples:

    • Conjunctival Fluid

    • Intestinal contents or feces

    • Whole blood

    • Lymphoid tissue, lung, intestine

    • Serum

Rinderpest


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Diagnostic Tests around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Antigen Detection

  • Antibody Detection

  • Histopathology

Rinderpest


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Differential Diagnosis around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Bovine virus diarrhea

  • Mucosal disease

  • Infectious bovine rhinotracheaitis

  • Malignant catarrhal fever

  • Vesicular stomatitis

  • Foot-and-mouth disease

Rinderpest


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Differential Diagnosis around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Salmonellosis

  • Necrobacillosis

  • paratuberculosis

  • Bluetongue / EHD

  • Mycotic Stomatitis

Rinderpest


Rinderpest bibliography l.jpg
Rinderpest - Bibliography around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

  • Foreign Animal Diseases (USAHA)

  • Emerging Diseases of Animals, Corrie Brown and Carole Bolin, eds. ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2000, 310pp.

  • Rinderpest, presentation to FEAD Course 2005, Knoxville Tennessee by Moritz van Vuuren

  • USDA APHIS VS, “Keeping America Free from Foreign Animal Diseases, vol 6,1997.

  • Panhandle Exercise Report, Amend, J. Burnham, S. and Waldrup, K.

  • OIE

  • FAO

Rinderpest


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Acknowledgements around Europe and east over and around Asia with every marauding army causing the disaster, death and devastation that preceded

Special thanks to

Linda Logan, DVM PhD, USDA

Professor Moritz van Vuuren

Ken Waldrup, DVM PhD

Robin Sewell, DVM

Kelsey Pohler- Research Assistant

Rinderpest


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