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Restless Earth and Varves. Layers and Layers…. Other Planets?. Moon, Mars, Venus all too small and cooled off too quickly Volcanoes do exist on Mars No recycling of surface (craters survive) Gas giants different composition (mostly H 2 ) and have very different geological activity.

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Restless earth and varves l.jpg

Restless Earth and Varves

Layers and Layers…..


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Other Planets?

  • Moon, Mars, Venus all too small and cooled off too quickly

    • Volcanoes do exist on Mars

    • No recycling of surface (craters survive)

  • Gas giants different composition (mostly H2) and have very different geological activity


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Geothermal Plants

  • Use Heat inside planet to make Energy!


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Canadian Diamonds

  • Kimberlite, Peridotite, Garnet


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Layers and Time

  • Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks

  • Sedimentary Rocks

    • Bottoms of rivers, lakes, oceans

    • Layers correspond to events

    • Limestone layers common in KY


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Layers in Rocks

  • Trees have rings to count for age

  • Sedimentary rocks have layers to count

    • Varves from freeze/thaw show alternating light/dark layers

    • Ice cores used in similar way


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Green Lake Varves

  • Dating by counting is relative

  • Banding is dark-light couplet per year


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Rock Cycle

  • Total mineral oxide mass not changing in quantity but only in distribution

  • Subduction and Volcanism

  • Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic

  • Devil’s Tower

  • Mount Fuji


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Igneous Rocks

  • Granite, Basalt

  • Mantle extrusion (or intrusion)


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Igneous Rocks

  • Formation recorded by types of minerals and grain size


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Sedimentary Rocks

  • Various types (from Coal to Limestone)


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Metamorphic Rocks

  • Gneiss, Marble, others

  • Very high temperature, pressures

  • Recrystallization of constituents