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Personality Disorders. Odd/Eccentric Cluster Dramatic/Erratic Cluster Anxious/Fearful Cluster. Defining features. Long lasting, pervasive, inflexible patterns of behavior and inner experience Deviate from the person’s culture Impair social and occupational functioning

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personality disorders

Personality Disorders

Odd/Eccentric Cluster

Dramatic/Erratic Cluster

Anxious/Fearful Cluster

defining features
Defining features
  • Long lasting, pervasive, inflexible patterns of behavior and inner experience
  • Deviate from the person’s culture
  • Impair social and occupational functioning
  • May cause emotional distress
additional characteristics
Additional characteristics
  • Features are found in normal folks
    • Beware 1st-year medical school syndrome
  • Characteristics begin in adolescence or early adulthood
    • Be careful with diagnosis if the symptoms have persisted for less than 10 years
  • Axis II disorders
  • High degree of comorbidity with Axis I disorders
reliability of diagnoses of personality disorders
Reliability of diagnoses of personality disorders
  • Interrater reliabilities are good
  • Test-retest reliabilities are often poor:
    • Schizotypal .11; Dependent .15;
    • Narcissistic .32; Histrionic .40;
    • Avoidant .41
problems with diagnosis
Problems with diagnosis
  • Actual symptoms of people may fit more than one personality disorder
  • Personality traits may be on a continuum, making categorical diagnosis inappropriate
  • The characteristics listed as symptoms are features which diagnosticians find particularly difficult to deal with
odd eccentric cluster loners
Odd/Eccentric Cluster: Loners
  • Paranoid Personality Disorder
    • Distrust, suspicion, see malevolent motives
    • Need to be autonomous and in control
  • Schizoid Personality Disorder
    • Detached relationships; do not seek intimacy
    • Limited variability of emotional expression
  • Schizotypal Personality Disorder
    • Sharp discomfort with close relationships
    • Mental distortions and behavioral oddities
dramatic erratic cluster annoying
Dramatic/Erratic Cluster: Annoying
  • Borderline Personality Disorder
    • Unstable relationships, self-image, mood
    • Impulsiveness
  • Histrionic Personality Disorder
    • Intense affect and attention-seeking
  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder
    • Grandiose, needs admiration
    • Lacks empathy
antisocial personality disorder
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Ignores and overrules rights of others
  • At least three of:
      • Repeated violations of legal social norms
      • Repeated deceitfulness
      • Impulsiveness or lack of planning
      • Repeated fights or assaults
      • Reckless disregard for safety: Self or others
      • Repeated failure to meet obligations
      • Lack of remorse: Indifference or rationalizing
  • Had conduct disorder before age 15
cleckley s criteria
Cleckley’s criteria
  • Interpersonal: Charming, poised, calm
    • Unreliable, irresponsible, impulsive
    • Ungrateful, vulgar, rude
  • Cognitive: Average to above-average IQ
    • No delusions or irrational thinking
    • Poor judgment, lack of insight and planning
    • Manie sans delire
more cleckley
More Cleckley...
  • Emotional: No anxiety, incapable of love
    • No deep, lasting emotions; quick shifts
  • Moral: Untruthful and insincere
    • Lacking in remorse and shame
    • Impersonal and trivial sex life
    • No real suicide attempts
    • Natural Born Killers
anxious fearful cluster
Anxious/Fearful Cluster
  • Avoidant Personality Disorder
    • Socially inhibited, feels inadequate
    • Very sensitive to criticism
  • Dependent Personality Disorder
    • Overly submissive, clinging, “Care for me.”
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
    • Neatness, perfectionism, control systems