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Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing Introduction Lee Harrelson, PE, LEED ® AP Principal, TM/R Engineering. Agenda. Building Systems Planning Room Sizes and Area %’s Mechanical Systems Equipment Identification and Application Considerations Outside Air Electrical Systems

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mechanical electrical and plumbing introduction lee harrelson pe leed ap principal tm r engineering

Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing IntroductionLee Harrelson, PE, LEED® APPrincipal, TM/R Engineering

agenda
Agenda
  • Building Systems Planning
    • Room Sizes and Area %’s
  • Mechanical Systems
    • Equipment Identification and Application Considerations
    • Outside Air
  • Electrical Systems
    • Equipment Identification and Application Considerations
    • Energy Code Considerations
  • Plumbing Systems
    • Equipment Identification and Application Considerations
building planning
Building Planning
  • Q: How much space for MEP systems?
  • A: Who knows? It depends on many factors: However, this website is a great starting point.

http://www.repwars.com/PSP/mechroom.html

mechanical systems
Mechanical Systems
  • Packaged Rooftop AHUs
    • Application Considerations
      • Exhaust fans more than 10 feet away from OA intake
      • Roof slopes coordinated with equipment
      • Clearance on one side of unit equal to unit width

http://www.trane.com

mechanical systems5
Mechanical Systems
  • Modular Indoor AHUs
    • Application Considerations
      • Clearance on one side of unit equal to unit width
      • Space for duct connections (large turning radius)

http://www.trane.com

mechanical systems6
Mechanical Systems
  • Fan Coil Unit
    • Application Considerations
      • Cannot place systems furniture partitions in front of unit
      • Minimal air-throw, cannot serve large space
      • Can be concealed in a perimeter millwork “bench”

http://www.trane.com

mechanical systems7
Mechanical Systems
  • Air-Cooled Chiller
    • Application Considerations
      • Located Outdoors
      • Very Noisy
      • No harmful plume

http://www.trane.com

mechanical systems8
Mechanical Systems
  • Water-Cooled Chiller
    • Application Considerations
      • Located Indoors, but extremely noisy
      • Needs 5 feet clearance on 3 sides and entire length of unit on end
      • Must be connected to a Cooling Tower (outside)

http://www.trane.com

mechanical systems9
Mechanical Systems
  • Open Cooling Tower
    • Application Considerations
      • Located outdoors, noise and vibration
      • Emits a saturated air plume which can cause damage to nearby buildings
      • Screening must have high free area

http://www.baltimoreaircoil.com

mechanical systems10
Mechanical Systems
  • Outside Air Requirements
    • Fresh Air is brought into the building to dilute the contaminants in the space.
      • Offices – 7 people/1000 ft2 and 20 CFM/person
      • Auditoriums – 150 people/1000 ft2 and 15 CFM/person
      • Classrooms – 50 people/1000 ft2 and 15 CFM/person
      • Libraries – 20 people/1000 ft2 and 15 CFM/person
      • Corridors and Storage – 0.10 CFM/ft
    • Why does this matter?
      • Large duct sizes, excessive loads that strain existing infrastructure requiring more mechanical space.
mechanical systems11
Mechanical Systems
  • Duct Shaft Sizing
    • How much space required for mechanical duct chases?
      • Rule of Thumb – Assume 1 CFM per square foot and assume 1000 feet per minute duct velocity
      • Example: Suppose an AHU serves a 20,000 ft2 floorplate. The AHU is located in the basement and serves the 2nd floor.
        • 20,000 ft2 needs roughly 20,000 CFM or 20,000 ft3/minute
        • Divide 20,000 ft3/minute by 1000 feet/minute to get duct cross sectional area.
        • 20,000/1000 = 20 ft2 required duct area
        • Remember…that’s just for the supply duct! We also have a return duct, outside air duct, exhaust ducts and we need space for piping.
electrical systems
Electrical Systems
  • Transformers
    • Application Considerations
      • Near electrical service entrance, inside or outside
      • Generate lots of heat
      • Service clearance depending on voltage, 3 to 5 feet typically
electrical systems13
Electrical Systems
  • Switchgear
    • Application Considerations
      • Service clearance depending on voltage, typically 3 to 5 feet
electrical systems14
Electrical Systems
  • Distribution Panel boards
    • Application Considerations
      • Service clearance depending on

voltage, typically 3 feet

electrical systems15
Electrical Systems
  • Bus duct Risers
    • Application Considerations
      • Should not offset. Bends are

large, expensive, and very difficult

to install

      • Space is required around the bus

duct to install the disconnect

switches

electrical systems16
Electrical Systems
  • Electrical Room Stacking
    • Application Considerations
      • Prevents offsetting of vertical power distribution such as bus ducts or cable in conduit
      • Increases system efficiency by reducing cabling run distances
electrical systems17
Electrical Systems
  • Energy Code and Lighting Power Allowances
    • Application Considerations
      • Most code reviewers are enforcing the International Energy Efficiency Code – 2003.
        • 1.1 watts/ft2 for offices
        • 1.4 watts/ft2 for classrooms and lecture halls
        • 1.9 watts/ft2 for workshops areas
        • 0.9 watts/ft2 for corridors
      • This often precludes reuse of existing inefficient lighting in renovation projects. T-5 fixtures are preferred.
plumbing systems
Plumbing Systems
  • Plumbing Piping

Note: Drains sloped at 1/4” to 1/8” per foot of run depending on size

Hubless Sanitary Vent Piping

Hubless Sanitary Drain Piping

Storm Drain Piping

Insulated Domestic Cold Water Piping

plumbing systems19
Plumbing Systems
  • Double Check Backflow Preventers
    • Application Considerations
      • Used to prevent contamination of city water supply
      • Installed at water service entrance to building
      • Typically require a floor drain
      • Must be accessible for

inspection and repair

plumbing systems20
Plumbing Systems
  • Roof Drains
    • Application Considerations
      • If parapet wall is installed, a secondary drain path must be provided to discharge above grade. Use scuppers or internal secondary system which is very costly.
      • Must drain by gravity
plumbing systems21
Plumbing Systems
  • Toilet Room Stacking
    • Should stack to minimize drainage stack offsets.
      • Drainage stack offsets (a bend greater than 45o) must be separately vented, increasing cost and required space
      • Venting is required to prevent backpressure in the piping, which will prevent proper draining
plumbing systems22
Plumbing Systems
  • Toilet Room Stacking
    • Venting an offset
plumbing systems23
Plumbing Systems
  • Stormwater Harvesting

http://www.constructionresources.com/images/products/services/rainwater_system.jpg