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Proposal for the NEW CITIZEN SCHOOL Project. The Research Group of the NEW CITIZEN SCHOOLS Project May, 200 7 Beijing. Content. The macro setting analysis on the education of migrant children The strategic position and vision of NCS

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slide1
Proposal for the NEW CITIZEN SCHOOLProject

The Research Group of the NEW CITIZEN SCHOOLS Project

May, 2007 Beijing

content
Content
  • The macro setting analysis on the education of migrant children
  • The strategic position and vision of NCS
  • The management mode and organization framework of NCS
    • Suggestions on the construction scheme of NCS
  • The features of NCS
migrant workers one of the main forces in the process of china s urbanization
00

03

05

06

Migrant Workers---One of the Main Forces in the Process of China’s Urbanization
  • 350 million
  • There is a huge amount of migrant workers with an amazing growth rate
  • It is self-deceiving and irresponsible to simply regard migrant workers as a FLOATING POPULATION. A considerable part of them should be regarded as urban IMMIGRANTS, which is one of the main forces in the process of China’s urbanization
  • 100 million
  • 2000
  • 2030
  • Take Dongguan as an example :
  • 8million
  • In some areas
  • (such as some cities in the Pearl River Delta), migrant workers have outnumbered native citizens
  • 1.6 million
  • Migrant workers
  • natives
  • The increase of floating children in Beijing
  • Under the tendency of FAMILY MIGRATION, the population of migrant children in many cities have shown a dramatic increase

Source: UNDP、CASS, 2006. Observation of China’s Urban Development

education of migrants migrant children a double edged sword
Education of Migrants/ Migrant Children—A Double-Edged Sword
  • Migrant workers might calmly accept the inequity for themselves, but it’s hard for them to accept the educational inequity for their children.
  • The educational inequity makes it more difficult for floating children to adapt to the society. Compared with their parents, floating children are inclined to be more radical, which might lead to vicious circle and add to their conflicts with the mainstream society.
  • The educational inequity blocks the channel for the unprivileged to climb up the social ladder, and causes more social inequity.

Education is the one of the most efficient tool to achieve social fairness

The educational inequity might cause serious social problems

  • Education is A RIGHT TO ENHANCE ONE’S ABILITY: a citizen can not enjoy his political, economical, social and cultural rights unless he is educated in some degree.
  • Education is hope: not only is education the most important way for migrant children to change their lives, it’s also a fundamental approach to narrow the social gap between the rich and the poor.
  • Education leads to a brighter future: the second generation of floating children will eventually become new urban citizens, whose education would be critical for the urban future.
social results lessons from aboard
Social Results—Lessons from Aboard

2005,the Chaos in Paris, France

The reason for these events lies in the failure of the migrant children to melt harmoniously into the mainstream society

2006,Terrorist Middle School in Berlin, Germany

2007,Gun Massacre at Virginia Tech University, U.S.

slide6
Social Results—Lessons from Home

Migrant children show a comparatively higher crime rate

They account for 10% of the minors population; whereas they committed over 50% of the juvenile crimes both in cities and in rural areas

Source:Nov.4th,2006. Xinhua Daily Telegraph

the predicament of the education of migrant children floating children left behind children
The Predicament of the Education of Migrant Children( Floating Children & Left-Behind Children)

The Large Population Size:

Serious Problems:

  • It’s difficult for floating children to enter school (National Working Committee on Children and Women under the State Council,2003)
    • Failing to attend school:9.3% of the floating children (over 1 million) fail to attend school
    • Dropout: the dropout rate of the 8-year-old floating children is 0.8%, whereas the dropout rate of the 14-year-old floating children rises to 15.4%, which suggests a stop-out tendency
    • Overage:19.7% of the 9-year-old floating children are still in the first grade.
  • The floating children get an education of comparatively low quality, since most of the schools of migrant children are profit-oriented
  • The left-behind children lack family education and social education, which seriously affect these children’s development(Zou Shuxin[邹树新] 2006)
    • Psychological health problems: depressive、capricious、impetuous、confrontational, etc.
    • Daily ward problems: safety
    • Academic record problems: bad scores

The population size of migrant children and its growth

Floating children: children following their parents in the cities

Left-behind children: children left behind at home by their migrant parents

100 million

43 million

23m

20m

2030

2006

Source: UNICEF, 2005, :the State of the World's Children 2006

slide8
Extension: the education of migrant children has become AN IMPORTANT SOCIAL PROBLEM IN THE PROCESS OF CHINA’S URBANIZATION(State Council, 2003)

The Essence and Extension of the Problem of the Education of Migrant Children

Essence: the right of education equity is not protected, and the migrant children are excluded and neglected

our focus the education of migrant children
Our Focus—the Education of Migrant Children

The scope of our inquiry

Realizing of importance and gravity of the problem of migrant children’s education, Narada Foundation has taken this problem as its main concern and launched a NEW CITIZEN PLAN to improve their growing environment( we’ve prepared another special report on this issue)

  • To provide financial aid for the projects serving migrant children, including moral cultivation, psychological health guidance, art training, public science education, volunteer teaching, etc.
  • NEW CITIZEN SCHOOL Project
    • It directly helps the floating children enter school and enjoy a QUALIFIED EDUCATIONAL EQUITY
    • These schools would be important bases for the NEW CITIZEN PLAN
    • It created models and mobilizes social resources to address the problem of migrant children’s education
content10
Content
  • The macro setting analysis of on the education of migrant children
  • The strategic position and vision of NCS
  • The management mode and organization framework of NCS
    • The construction scheme of NCS

-- construction mode

-- cost estimate

-- pilot plan for 2007

  • The features of NCS
slide11
The strategic position of NEW CITIZEN SCHOOLS--based on the performance and deficiency of government and market in this field
  • Government
    • Failure of traditional education system
    • Failure of education policies for migrant children
  • Market
    • Market helps alleviate the consequences caused by government failure
    • Market failure and the analysis of cause

Position of NEW CITIZEN SCHOOL

policy increasingly liberal
Policy: Increasingly Liberal

Policy Analysis:1. Increasingly liberal: the extra-paid fee being abolished; migrant children regulated with no discrimination2. The government receiving the influx of the children of migrant workers and the public schools are required to take the main responsibility for their compulsory schooling3. Legal guarantee of the right of educational equity

Jun. 2006. Compulsory Education Law: guarantee migrant children’s equal rights ofcompulsory education

slide13
Although

Education policies are favorable

to the education of floating children at large

Since

These policies lack operability

Therefore

Local governments have shown great differences

in the practical enforcement of these policies

Policy failure results from a series of fundamental immanent causes

slide14
Market can help alleviate the consequences caused by

government failure in some degree

Migrant workers with low income( under 1400 Yuan

per month ) account for 54% of the total population

of migrant workers, according to the result of a 2006 survey over 29,425 migrant workers by National Statistics Bureau.

BUT

It still cannot meet the education demand of the

children from low income migrant family

AND

Source: National Statistics Bureau, 2006, Report on the Life Quality of Urban Migrant Workers

slide15
Market Failure:

A. It can not solve the problem of migrant family with low income;

B. The education for migrant children provided by the market is of low quality.

The private schools of migrant children appear to be in a 4-LOW state:

-- Low capital investment

-- Low tuition

-- Low wages for teachers

-- Low quality

ncs value position based on the failure of government and market
Illegitimate
  • Profit-Making
  • Social Resources
  • Government Resources
  • 4-LOW State
NCS’ Value Position—Based on the Failure of Government and Market
  • Deadlock of Profit-Making Private Schools:

Source: Analysis of the Preparatory Group

suggestion on ncs position
Suggestion on NCS’ Position
  • We suggest the strategic position of NCS be Non-Profit, Fit for Civilian Population(平民性),and High Quality.
  • These are three reference points from where to leverage the support and participation of governments, enterprises and the society.
  • By doing this, we are supposed to explore and expand a new education model which is RUN BY NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND SUBSIDIZED BY THE STATE.
  • 民办公助的
  • “新公民学校”
position1 nonprofit to break through the 4 low deadlock hampering private education
Illegitimate
  • Legitimate
  • Profit-Making
Position1: Nonprofit—To Break Through the 4-Low Deadlock Hampering Private Education
  • Non-Government Nonprofit School is the Most Possible Way to Break Through This Deadlock
  • Deadlock Hampering the Development of Profit-Making Private Schools

More Qualified Non-government Schools

  • Nonprofit

Government Resources

Government Resources

Non-government Schools Up to Standard with Its

Own Features

Social Resources

Social Resources

Social Resources

4-Low State

  • Under the financial support from Narada, the nonprofit New Citizen Schools would gain legitimacy with higher quality standard and average up the overall quality level of non-government education
position2 fit for civilian population to meet the demand unsatisfied by government and market
Position2: Fit for Civilian Population—ToMeet the Demand Unsatisfied by Government and Market
  • Nonprofit
  • Non-Government
  • Schools
  • Migrant Families’ Income
  • Profit-Making Private Schools
  • Public Schools

high

middle

  • low
position3 high quality the way to realize the ideal of new citizen education
Position3: High Quality—The Way to Realize the Ideal of NEW CITIZEN EDUCATION
  • 1. Excellent Educational Resources

Narada has a strong ability to mobilize various social resources which can help leverage excellent educational resources.

2. Unique Educational Ethos

  • New Citizen Values
  • Life Education
general idea of new citizen school
General Idea of NEW CITIZEN SCHOOL
  • A non-government nonprofit education brand subsidized by the state, serving for migrant children with high quality.
  • government:
  • 1)To invest 1-2 million to each school
  • 2)To support NEW CITIZEN SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT CENTER
  • Narada:
  • 1)To grant legal status
  • 2)To provide construction support policy such as land policy and special house-renting preferences
  • 3)To support the running of the schools by various ways such as per capita subsidies
  • Run by non-government organizations
  • Subsidized by the State
  • 1)Overall preparation and coordination of construction
  • 2) To employ school administrators
  • 3) To dominate school board; to appoint and remove headmasters
  • 4) To take charge of the training of administrators and teachers
  • 5)In charge of brand management , publicity and communication
  • 6)General coordinator among governments, enterprises and social participators
  • Center:
  • The profit is not to be distributed, the property right belongs to the society
  • Non-Profit
  • Excellent teaching resources
  • Excellent teachers
  • High Quality
  • 1)The highest decision-making body of the schools
  • 2) To support and supervise the management
  • Fit for the Civilian Population
  • School Board:
  • 1) Low tuition fee: 300-400Yuan
  • 2) Hardware of economical style
  • 1)To act under guidance of the Center
  • 2)daily administration
  • Headmasters:
  • 1)Dedicated to and specialized in the education of migrant children
  • 2)Characteristic education which applies the NEW CITIZEN EDUCATION theory and the LIFE EDUCATION to practice
  • Open, modeled, replicable
  • Education Brand
  • to guide the selection of teaching content and courses
  • Experts:
  • 1)To donate and provide volunteer service
  • 2)Each school is education foundation that can raise funds from the society
  • Society:
development stages of ncs
Development Stages of NCS

Goal: to build 100 schools in 10 years

10 years

Primary+ Junior + Vocational School(9+2)

Primary +

Junior Middle School

Primary

School

Junior Middle School

Vocational Education

Primary Schools First

content23
Content
  • The macro setting analysis on the education of migrant children
  • The strategic position and vision of NCS
  • The management mode and organization framework of NCS

-- organization structure

-- human resource management

-- financial management

    • Suggestions on the construction scheme of NCS
  • The features of NCS
management mode
Management Mode
  • Narada Foundation—NCS Development Center—NCS—Partners
  • Organization Structure
  • Human Resource Management
  • Development Center—School Preparatory Group—School Board—Headmaster—Teacher
  • Financial Management
  • Center—School
organization framework
Organization Framework

Core Institution

  • All the possessions of Narada Foundation, the Center and the New Citizen Schools are socialized property

Strategic Partner: NPP

  • Narada Foundation

Partners

Establishing

Entrusting

Supervising

Providing Financial Aid

Guiding

NCS Administration Committee

  • NCS
  • Development Center

Policy-Making

Guiding

Majority of Seats

Nominating

Establishing

Project Bidding

  • NCS Expert Committee

Supervising

Training Serving

  • NCS Board

Constructing

Authorizing

Reviewing

Teaching

Teaching Material

Supervising

Policy-Making

  • NPO Partner as Enforcement Body

Supporting

Government

  • New Citizen Schools

Supporting, Managing, School-Running, Constructing

Supporting

Coordinating Communicating Contacting

  • Public &
  • Enterprises
organization structure
Organization Structure

Core Institute

  • Financial supporter and owner of the service mark.
  • Its authority:
  • Brand management: Narada has applied for the registration of NCS and is waiting for the approval
  • Set up and provide financial aid for the Development Center of NCS
  • Supervise and assess the management and operation of the NCS project
  • Accept social donation and appropriate financial aid
  • Narada Foundation
  • Builder and manager. Its function:
  • In charge of the preparatory work, establishment, management and training of headmasters and teachers
  • Establishment pattern: set up in a newly established NCS, until the time is ripe for it to be registered as an independent non-government nonprofit corporate
  • NCS Development Center
  • Local enforcement body selected through project bidding
  • Its function:
  • In charge of the local constructionand management of NCS
  • In charge of the contact, coordination and communication with local governments.
  • Provide support for the development of NCS

NPO Partners as

Enforcement Body

  • Non-profit schools of high quality serving children from low income migrant family
  • Located in the living places of migrant workers’ family across the nation
  • New Citizen
  • Schools
human resource management
Human Resource Management
  • The members of Administration Committee are recommended by the

Narada Foundation.

Director of the Center is appointed by the Administration Committee and approved by the Narada Foundation.

  • There are mainly two kinds of personnel appointed by the Center:
    • Administrator: to work as group leaders of School Preparatory Group.
    • Financial personnel: to be sent to the NCS as financial executives.
  • Center:
  • The Center chooses one local NPO as a partner to set up Preparatory Group for NCS
  • The Center pay necessary expenditure for Preparatory Group members but does not pay their wages.
  • School
  • Preparatory
  • Group
  • Set up by the Preparatory Group; the proportion of board members recommended by the Center should be no less than 50%.
  • There would be 5-11 board members including representatives from the Center, donators, partners, educational sector and media, etc. with strong ability to mobilize social resources
  • Chairman of the board would be elected by the board and approved by the Center
  • School
  • Board
  • School Board openly recruit qualified and experienced headmasters who would independently take charge of daily teaching and administrative affairs as well as the hiring and firing of teachers.
  • Headmasters and teachers would be transferred and be promoted within the national NCS system

Headmaster and

Teacher

financial management
Financial Management
  • Financial Management of the Center:
  • Funds would be appropriated by Narada covering basic expense, project expense, and financial reward for funds raising
  • Financial statement would be reported to Narada monthly
  • Annual audit would be conducted by accounting firm employed by Narada
  • Findings of audit would be publicly published
  • Basic Principles:
  • Legitimate, Normative, Professional, Transparent
  • To implement the Accounting System for Non-government, Nonprofit Organizations prescribed by the Ministry of Finance
  • Financial Management of the Schools
  • Financial executives would be sent and paid by the Center
  • One financial executive would take charge of 2-3 schools
  • Financial executives would work shifts non-periodically
  • Annual audit would be conducted by accounting firm employed by the Center
  • Findings of audit would be publicly published
content29
Content
  • The macro setting analysis on the education of migrant children
  • The strategic position and vision of NCS
  • The management mode and organization framework of NCS
    • Suggestions on the construction scheme of NCS
      • Prerequisites
      • Principles and Patterns
      • Basic Standards of Establishment
      • Cost Estimate for Construction and Operation
      • Sustainability
      • Pilot Plan for 2007
  • The features of NCS
prerequisites
Prerequisites
  • A large supply-demand gap
  • Government support: local government be willing to grant school license
  • Initial fund provided by Narada would be no more than 1.5 million Yuan
  • Essential
  • Prerequisites
  • Conditions That
  • Can Be
  • Acquired
  • by Striving
  • Lands and schoolhouses: policy support from local government in the form of price preference or allowing to use without compensation
  • Educational appropriations: local government providing financial aid valued no less than 30% of local public educational appropriations standard
  • Volunteers: to choose one or more local NPO as strategic partner which would provide fund-raising support and voluntary service support, etc.
  • Publicity: to establishstrategic cooperation with one or more mainstream media which would provide publicity support and fund-raising support, etc.
principles and patterns of establishment
Principles and Patterns of Establishment
  • By Stages:
  • Narada Foundation provides the school with fundamental conditions( mainly schoolhouses school desks and school chairs )
  • 2. To improve the hardware and software environments gradually with funds raised from social sectors
  • Hardware environments: libraries, computer houses, scientific laboratories, music rooms, gymnastic rooms, etc.
  • Software environments: fellowships, scholarships and teacher training funds, etc.
  • Principles
  • BuildingNew Schools
  • Patterns
  • 2. Reforming Existing Private Schools
  • 3. Taking Over Public Schools
basic standards of establishment
Basic Standards of Establishment
  • On the principle of SAFE, HEALTHY AND PRACTICAL.
  • To appropriately lower some hardware standards referring to The Construction Standard of Rural Regular Elementary and Secondary Schools( Trial) as a reference.
  • Security:
  • No less than 500,000 Yuan
  • Registered Capital:
  • The schoolhouses haveto acquire a certificate of title or the document of approval from related government departmentsof planning; They have to show survey report on house safety and go through legal record formalities of house renting.
  • The dining rooms must meet the requirements of Provisions on Hygiene of School Dining Room and Food, and gain dining room hygiene license.
  • Firefighting system has to acceptance checks by related government departments; there must be fire pre-warning plan and emergency evacuation plan; the quality and quantity of firefighting installations have to meet the requirements of relevant provisions
  • Qualification of Headmasters and Teachers:
  • The headmaster should have Teacher’s Qualification Certificate, at least 5 years’ teaching experience, plus a school administration experience.
  • Teachers and administrators should have relevant qualifications prescribed by the state
  • Floor Area and Schoolhouses:
  • Able to meet basic requirements for education and teaching activities
basic school conditions
Basic School Conditions
  • 1. Elementary Department: Form 1-6
  • 2. Students: 500 students with no more than 45 per class;
  • 12 classes
  • 3. Faculty Members:1.8teachers per class; 22 teachers plus 4 staff
  • members=26 members.
  • Teacher‘s Wage: 1600 Yuan per Month
  • Size:
  • Buildings
  • Classrooms: 12
  • Offices: 3
  • Meeting Room: 1
  • Computer House:1
  • Library: 1
  • Music Room: 1
  • Laboratory: 1
  • Dormitory: 2
  • Kitchen: 2
  • Lavatory: 2
  • Total Building Area:
  • 26 rooms×60m2 /room=1560m2
  • Total Floor Area: 10 acres
  • Colored Steel House: 350 Yuan/m2
  • Brick House: 500 Yuan/m2
  • Infrastructure: 100 Yuan/m2
  • Basic Educational equipments valued 320,000 Yuan
  • Equipments
cost estimate table for school construction and operation
Cost Estimate Table for School Construction and Operation

Option1: Renting Houses

Option2: Renting Lands and Construct Houses on Them

Unit: Thousand

sustainability
Sustainability
  • The construction and operation of NCS mainly depend on the financial support of Narada Foundation in the first years.
  • From the 5th year on there would be a financial gap of 130,000 -230,000 Yuan each year.
  • If the schools can keep its nonprofit philosophy, normative management, finance transparency and features, and keep averaging up their teaching level, then social resources would keep flowing in constantly.
short term medium term and long term targets
Short-Term, Medium-Term and Long-Term Targets
  • Amount
  • Time
  • Scope
  • 2007
  • To build 1 new school, and reform 1-2 schools
  • Beijing
  • Central Cities
  • Above 10
  • 2-3 years
  • Across the Nation
  • 5-10 years
  • 100 schools

T

  • Two Possible Plans for 2007
  • Plan 1:
  • Plan 2:
  • To start with reforming the council and management system of Xingzhi School in Daxing district and declare it as the first NCS on Sep. 1.
  • To start with preparing to establish at least one new school and reforming the council and management system of 1-2 existing private schools in Beijing(such as Xingzhi School in Daxing district)
slide37
What to Do In the Following Months?

JUNE:

• Prepare for the establishment of the Development Center (Person in charge: Liu Wenhua);

• Choose partner (Organization in charge: Narada Foundation; Development Center )

• Appoint members of management committee of the Development Center ( Narada Foundation; Development Center )

• Choose location of the first schools to be established in 2007(Huang He, Liu Wenhua)

JUNE TO AUGUST:

• Establish the first New Citizen School. ( Organization in charge: Development Center)

content38
Content
  • The macro setting analysis on the education of migrant children
  • The strategic position and vision of NCS
  • The management mode and organization framework of NCS
    • Suggestions on the construction scheme of NCS
  • The features of NCS
features of new citizen education theory and approaches
Features of New Citizen Education— Theory and Approaches
  • New Citizen Ethos
  • NCS targets at realizing QUALIFIED EDUCATIONAL EQUITY. It’s first feature is the ethos of NEW CITIZEN itself. It’s a made-to-measure solution for the education of migrant children helping them adapt to modern urban life.
  • Demand-oriented life education instead of formalist teaching.
  • Life Education
feature 1 ethos new citizen values
Feature 1 : Ethos—New Citizen Values
  • New Citizen Values:
  • Individual with individual/ collective/ society/ human kind/ nature
  • Sense of Responsibility
  • ☀☆ ♘❀
  • Individual with individual/ collective/ society
  • Openness, Sense of Democracy
  • Individual with individual/ collective
  • Charity, Sense of Cooperation
  • individual
  • Self-Esteem, Independency
the unique innovation mechanism of ncs
The Unique Innovation Mechanism of NCS
  • Demand-Oriented

For example, considering the fact that most migrant children don’t have good study environment at home, and many of their parents are not capable of providing guidance for their study, we suppose to extend the school day, so that they could finish their homework under guidance of school teachers.

  • Providing Innovation Platform
  • NCS provides an open practical platform for various of excellent and creative education theories and methods
  • Take Happiness Index as a Yardstick
  • NCS takes students’ sense of happiness as the main yardstick to measure the school-running and teaching activities, and NCS believes the best way for these children to achieve such a sense of happiness is to create a free and happy development environment for them.
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