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Basic Networking and Exchange Server. Overview of Basic Networking. Basics of Network, Types of Computer Network, Components of computer Network OSI Model Network Connecting Devices IP Address Protocols. Basic of Network. Network definition

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Basic networking and exchange server l.jpg
Basic Networking and Exchange Server

Softsmith Infotech

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Overview of Basic Networking

  • Basics of Network, Types of Computer Network, Components of computer Network

  • OSI Model

  • Network Connecting Devices

  • IP Address

  • Protocols

Softsmith Infotech

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Basic of Network

  • Network definition

    • A network is an interconnection of two or more devices in order to enable transfer of data or information from one place to another

Softsmith Infotech

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Advantage and Disadvantage of Network

  • Advantages

    • Sharing of Software and Hardware resources

    • Central storage and Data security

    • Easier and faster sharing of information

  • Disadvantages

    • Costly Hardware and Software

    • Need for an administrator to take care of the network

Softsmith Infotech

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Types of Computer Network

Computer Networks:

  • LAN

    • A Network consisting of two or more computers that are interconnected by means of cable in a single location is called as Local Area Network.

  • Types of LAN

    • Peer to Peer

      • This is an example of simple network where two or more computers are directly connected to each other and share resources. There is no central control over the network. Peer networks are organized into workgroups.


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  • Server Based Network

    • In this type of network, there is a main computer called as the SERVER that controls the network and provides central storage space for information. The other computers that are connected to the Server are called as CLIENTS, or WORKSTATIONS

  • Hybrid Network

    • These types of network are a combination of both peer to peer and SERVER network


Softsmith Infotech

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  • Wide Area Network

    • A network of computers that are interconnected over a large area is called Wide Area Network. The computers are connected by means of Cables, Telephone lines, Satellites or Radio transceivers.

      i.e. Internet

  • Metropolitan Area Network

    • A network of computers that are interconnected within a specific geographical area like university campus or a city is called as Metropolitan Area Network or Campus Area Network

Softsmith Infotech

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Network Connecting Devices

Network connecting devices are

  • Hubs

  • Switches

  • Routers

  • Ethernet Card

  • Cables & Connectors

  • Hubs

    • Hubs amplify signals and split them so that the signals reach their destinations. Hubs available configurations are 4 /8/ 16/ 32 for connection 4 /8/ 16/ 32 computers respectively. Hubs is isolated device now.


  • Softsmith Infotech

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    • Switches

      • These are the connecting points in a network where UTP and STP cables are used. Switches amplify signals and split them so that the signals reach their destination

      • The main differences between hubs and switches is that hubs transmit signals to all ports that are attached, whereas, switches send the signal directly to the destination MAC address. Switches also work in full-duplex mode where the signals can be transmitted and received between the switch and the computer simultaneously

      • Switches are available in configuration of 8/ 16/ 24/ 32 ports for connecting computers

    • Routers

      • A Router is a combination of hardware and software. The hardware may be a server or a separate routing device and the software consists of the network operating system and the routing protocol. Routers work at the network layer of the OSI model.


    Softsmith Infotech

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    • Routers use the network address to select the appropriate destination for signals.

    • They are more intelligent than other devices because they have special instructions to determine the quickest path to send a packet to a network

    • TCP/IP, NWLink, IPX are the popular routable protocols used in an internetwork.

    • RIPv1, RIPv2, OSPF, IGRP, EIGRP are the Network Operating System protocols used to communicate from one place to another place

  • Ethernet Card

    • An Ethernet card is one kind of network adapter. These adapters support the Ethernet (Network) standard for high-speed network connections via cables. Ethernet cards are sometimes called as network interface card (NIC).

  • Softsmith Infotech

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    Ethernet Cables and Connector destination for signals.

    Softsmith Infotech

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    IP Address destination for signals.

    • IP Address

      • Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical identification and logical address that is assigned to devices participating in a computer utilizing the Internet Protocol for communication between its nodes

      • Two types of IP protocol versions are IPv4 and IPv6

        Ex. IPv4 – & IPv6 - 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:1:1


    Softsmith Infotech

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    • Private IP Address destination for signals.

      • Private IP addresses are typically used on local networks i.e. home, school and business LANs including airports and hotels.

      • Devices with private IP addresses cannot connect directly to the Internet.

      • Computers outside the local network cannot connect directly to a device with a private IP.

    Softsmith Infotech

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    Common Protocols and Ports destination for signals.

    Softsmith Infotech

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    DNS – Domain Name Server destination for signals.

    • A system for converting host names and domain names into IP addresses on the Internet or on local networks that use the TCP/IP protocol

      DNS Possible Zones include:

      • Forward lookup zone - Name to IP address map.

      • Reverse lookup zone - IP address to name map.

      • Standard primary zone (primary zone) - A master copy of a forward or reverse lookup zone.

      • Active Directory integrated zone - A copy of a standard primary or Active Directory integrated zone. The IP address and computer name is stored in Active Directory and replicated to all local domain controllers. DNS information is not replicated to domain controllers outside the domain.

    Softsmith Infotech

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    Common DNS Records destination for signals.

    • AAAA Host resource record for IPv6 protocol

    • A - Address record allowing a computer name to be translated into an IP address. Each computer must have this record for its IP address to be located. These names are not assigned for clients that have dynamically assigned IP addresses, but are a must for locating servers with static IP addresses.

    • CNAME - Canonical name allowing additional names or aliases to be used to locate a computer

    • MX - Mail Exchange server record. There may be several

    • MG - Mail group resource record.

    • MINFO - Mailbox mail list information resource record

    • ATMA - Asynchronous Transfer Mode resource record

    Softsmith Infotech

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    Authentication destination for signals.

    • An authentication factor is a piece of information used to authenticate or verify a person's identity on appearance or in a procedure for security purposes and with respect to individually granted access rights

    • Authentication protocols are PAP, SPAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP and EAP. NTLMV3, Kerberous

    Softsmith Infotech

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    Firewall destination for signals.

    • A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.


    Softsmith Infotech

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    • Firewall techniques: destination for signals.

      • Packet filter: Looks at each packet entering or leaving the network and accepts or rejects it based on user-defined rules. Packet filtering is fairly effective and transparent to users, but it is difficult to configure. In addition, it is susceptible to IP spoofing.

      • Application gateway: Applies security mechanisms to specific applications, such as FTP and Telnet servers. This is very effective, but can impose a performance degradation.

      • Circuit-level gateway: Applies security mechanisms when a TCP or UDP connection is established. Once the connection has been made, packets can flow between the hosts without further checking.

      • Proxy server: intercepts all messages entering and leaving the network. The proxy server effectively hides the true network addresses.

    Softsmith Infotech

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    Proxy destination for signals.

    • In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application program) that acts as a go-between for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers.

    • A client connects to the proxy server, requesting some service, such as a file, connection, web page, or other resource, available from a different server. The proxy server evaluates the request according to its filtering rules.

    • Mainly Proxy server used for following purposes,

      • To keep machines behind it anonymous (mainly for security).

      • To speed up access to a resource (via caching). It is commonly used to cache web pages from a web server or internet server.

    Softsmith Infotech

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    Microsoft Exchange Server destination for signals. is a messaging and collaboration server for integrated messaging and data storage.

    Exchange Server features include calendaring, contact management, e-mail, and instant messaging.

    Exchange Server can store applications, documents, and Web content and make them accessible via Internet protocols like HTTP and NNTP

    Prerequisites to Install Exchange Server

    Active Directory Services

    IIS – Internet Information Services

    SMTP Service

    Messaging Queuing Service


    DNS – Domain Name Server

    Microsoft Exchange Server

    Softsmith Infotech

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    Microsoft Exchange Services destination for signals.

    • Services are

      • Microsoft Active directory connector

      • Microsoft Exchange event

      • Microsoft Exchange Imap4

      • Microsoft Exchange information store

      • Microsoft Exchange mta stack

      • Microsoft Exchange pop3

      • Microsoft Exchange smtp

      • Microsoft Exchange routing engine

      • Microsoft Exchange system attendant

      • Microsoft Exchange site replication services

    Softsmith Infotech