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Types of Learning. Behaviorists’ Style Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Observational learning Learning is a relatively permanent change. Mental activity is irrelevant and unknowable (‘30s-50s). Other Classical Conditioning: Examples. Sound of a dentist’s drill: sweaty palms

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types of learning
Types of Learning
  • Behaviorists’ Style
  • Classical conditioning
  • Operant conditioning
  • Observational learning
  • Learning is a relatively permanent change.
  • Mental activity is irrelevant and unknowable (‘30s-50s)
other classical conditioning examples
Other Classical Conditioning: Examples
  • Sound of a dentist’s drill: sweaty palms
  • Smell of mom’s laundry: smiling
  • Sight of certain restaurant: nausea
  • Noise of a can opener: cat comes running
  • Smell of a hospital: weakened immunity

How does this happen?

classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning
  • Discovered (accidentally) by Ivan Pavlov (‘20s)
pavlov s observation
Pavlov’s Observation
  • Studied digestion in dogs
  • Noticed something out of the ordinary.
  • Components
    • Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
    • Unconditioned Response (UR)
    • Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    • Conditioned Response (CR)
pavlov s experiment phase 1
Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 1
  • Before Conditioning
  • Food (US)  salivation (UR)
    • Reflexive (or natural) response. UNlearned
  • Tone (CS)  nothing (CR)
pavlov s experiment phase 2
Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 2
  • CS is repeatedly paired with the US
    • A tone is sounded before the food is presented
pavlov s experiment phase 3
Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 3
  • Eventually, the CS elicits a new CR
    • Hearing the tone by itself causes salivation
  • Pre-test: I say “Pavlov”
    • How much do you drool?
  • Acquisition: I say “Pavlov”
    • Eat a piece of smarties
  • Test: I say “Pavlov -test trial”
    • No smarties; How much do you drool?
classical conditioning1
Classical Conditioning
  • Our demo
    • Unconditioned Stimulus (US)?
      • Smartie
    • Unconditioned Response?
      • Salivate to candy
    • Conditioned Stimulus?
      • “Pavlov!”
    • Conditioned Response?
      • Salivate to Pavlov
classical conditioning2
Classical Conditioning
  • Stimulus generalization
  • Stimulus discrimination
classical conditioning3
Classical Conditioning
  • Terms to check:
  • Acquisition
  • Extinction
    • Pavlov test trials
  • Reacquisition or Spontaneous recovery
time to learn
Time to learn:
  • Generally people show CC after 10-15 trials.
  • OCD after 3-5 trials.
  • Autism condition faster.
  • If you encourage the association.
  • The more predictable the association, the stronger the response.
classical conditioning applied
Classical Conditioning Applied
  • Drug overdoses
  • Smoking: environmental cues
  • Systematic desensitization
  • Advertising:
other associations
Other associations
  • Weather forecasters receive hate mail.
  • “Tupperware!” rather than “Bingo!”
  • Politicians holding babies.
  • Dirty by association: would you eat off a clean toilet brush?
  • Guilty by association.
higher order conditioning
Higher Order Conditioning
  • Ex: Clap my hands and say “Pavlov” and test your response to my clapping hands
  • Pair CS1 with a new CS2
  • CS2: CR
  • But, CR will be weaker
cta single trial
CTA: single trial
  • More likely with foods that are less familiar to us.
  • More likely if the illness corresponds with time it takes to digest.
  • Positive correlation b/w the intensity of the illness, and intensity of the learned response.
  • Complexities can occur i.e. smoking, drinking.
    • Very familiar (other associations already formed)
    • Blame on nausea producing pills.
operant learning
Operant Learning
  • Law of Effect
  • Positive Reinforcer
types of learning1
Types of Learning
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Observational learning
operant conditioning examples
Operant Conditioning: Examples
  • Tantrums are punished: fewer tantrums
  • Tantrums bring attention: more tantrums
  • Slot machine pays out: gamble more
  • Reward dog for sitting: dog is likely to sit

How does this happen?

operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning
  • Law of Effect: actions that have positive outcomes are likely repeated
  • Skinner box
    • chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain food or water as reinforcer
  • Shaping
    • reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal
operant conditioning principles
Operant Conditioning: Principles
  • Reinforcement
    • Positive reinforcement
    • Negative reinforcement
  • Punishment
    • Positive punishment
    • Negative punishment
negative reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement?!
  • The words “positive” and “negative” are not used as in ‘good’ or ‘bad’, but rather mathematically “add” or “subtract”
  • Therefore Negative reinforcement - takes something away to reinforce behavior
  • Reinforcement increases the chances the behavior will happen again.
  • Handout
  • Must you be reinforced every time in order for the behavior to continue?
    • Interval (time) and Ratio (# of responses) Schedules
    • Which do you think produce most responses?
    • Fixed and Variable
    • Which type is more resistant to extinction?
observational learning
Observational Learning
  • Observational Learning
    • learning by observing others
  • Modeling
    • process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
    • Vicarious learning.
    • Canned laughter on TV shows
    • Phobia t-ment
    • Bartenders putting tips in an empty jar.
  • Increases in times of uncertainty and when we see a similarity b/w self and model.
observational learning of aggression
Observational Learning of Aggression
  • Bandura’s Bobo doll study
free will
Free Will
  • illusion?
  • Skinner: the only freedom we have is to arrange our own consequences (environment) and not leave it up to government or fate.
  • Only by identifying the external factors that give rise to “doing good” can we bring them under control so that more people will do good more often.
classical versus operant conditioning
Classical conditioning

Learned association between US and CS

Organism is passive

Response automatic

Operant conditioning

Associate response and reinforcement

Organism is active

Produces consequences

Classical versus Operant Conditioning
  • Some Shared features
    • Avoidance learning
    • Extinction and spontaneous recovery
    • Generalization and discrimination
Using a scale from -10 (most unpleasant experience you can imagine) though 0 (neutral experience) to +10 (most pleasant) rate:
  • Imagine a bowl of your favorite soup
  • Imagine a bowl of your favorite soup served in a brand-new bedpan.
  • Imagine your favorite pizza
  • Imagine your favorite pizza served to you on a brand-new fly swatter.
  • Imagine your favorite drink.
  • Imagine your favorite drink stirred with a brand-new toilet brush.
negative reinforcement1
Negative Reinforcement?!
  • Taking aspirin - removes headache and increases chances you’ll take aspirin again.
  • Hurry home to get out of the cold - removes cold, increases chances you’ll hurry outside.
  • Give into whining: removes annoying cries, increases chances dog will whine again.
  • Explain these: putting up an umbrella to stay dry, putting your seatbelt on to stop annoying sound, smoking to relieve anxiety.
  • Be sure to explain what is being removed!