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The Urinary System. The Urinary System. Paired kidneys A ureter for each kidney Urinary bladder Urethra. Main Functions of Urinary System. Kidneys filter blood to keep it pure Toxins Metabolic wastes Excess water Excess ions Dispose of nitrogenous wastes from blood Urea Uric acid

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the urinary system2
The Urinary System
  • Paired kidneys
  • A ureter for each kidney
  • Urinary bladder
  • Urethra
main functions of urinary system
Main Functions of Urinary System
  • Kidneys filter blood to keep it pure
    • Toxins
    • Metabolic wastes
    • Excess water
    • Excess ions
  • Dispose of nitrogenous wastes from blood
    • Urea
    • Uric acid
    • Creatinine
  • Regulate the balance of water and electrolytes, acids and bases
slide4
Kidneys are retroperitoneal organs (see next slide)
    • Superior lumbar region of posterior abdominal wall
  • Lateral surface is convex
  • Medial surface is concave
    • Hilus* is cleft: vessels, ureters and nerves enter and leave
  • Adrenal glands* lie superior to each kidney

(the yellow blob in pic)

*

*

slide7

Note layers of adipose (fat), capsule, fascia

Transverse sections show retroperitoneal position of kidneys

Note also: liver, aorta muscles on CT

slide9
Kidney has two regions
    • Cortex: outer
      • Columns of cortex divide medulla into “pyramids”
    • Medulla: inner
      • Darker, cone-shaped medullary or renal pyramids
      • Parallel bundles of urine-collecting tubules
slide10
The human kidney has lobes
    • Pyramid and cortical tissue surrounding it
    • 5-11 per kidney
  • Renal pelvis (=basin)
    • Expanded, funnel shaped, superior part of ureter
    • Branches to form two or three major calices (seen best on right pic below)
    • Each of these divides again, minor calices: collect urine from papillae of pyramids
the arteries
The Arteries

Aorta gives off right and left renal arteries

Renal arteries divides into 5segmentalarteries as enters hilus of kidney

Segmentals branch into lobar arteries

Lobars divide into interlobars

Interlobars into arcuate in junction of medulla and cortex

Arcuates send interlobulararteries into cortex

Cortical radiate arteries give rise to glomerular arterioles

vasculature of the kidney
Vasculature of the kidney
  • The glomerular capillary bed is unusual in having arterioles going both to it and away from it (afferent and efferent), instead of a vein going away as most
  • It is also unusual in having two capillary beds in series (one following the other)
slide13

To left is a single, generalized uriniferous tubule

  • More than a million of these tubules act together to form the urine
  • Three main mechanisms
  • Glomerular filtration
  • Tubular reabsorption
  • Tubular secretion
  • Two major parts
  • A urine-forming nephron
  • A collecting duct which concentrates urine by removing water from it
  • Uriniferous tubule is the main structural and functional unit
outline
Outline
  • Uriniferous tubule (anatomical unit for forming urine)
    • Nephron
      • Renal corpuscle (in cortex)
        • Glomerulus (tuft of capillaries)
        • Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule
      • Tubular section
        • Proximal convoluted tubule
        • Loop of Henle
        • Distal convoluted tubule
    • Collecting duct
outline15
Outline
  • Uriniferous tubule (anatomical unit for forming urine)
    • Nephron
      • Renal corpuscle (in cortex)
        • Glomerulus (tuft of capillaries)
        • Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule
      • Tubular section
        • Proximal convoluted tubule
        • Loop of Henle
        • Distal convoluted tubule
    • Collecting duct
understand at least this much
Understand at least this much:

Filtration

a. Fluid is squeezed out of the glomerular capillary bed

Resorption

b. Most nutrients, water ad essential ions are returned to the blood of the peritubular capillaries

Secretion

c. Moves additional undesirable molecules into tubule from blood of peritubular capillaries

nephron

Uriniferous tubule (anatomical unit for forming urine)

    • Nephron
      • Renal corpuscle (in cortex)
        • Glomerulus (tuft of capillaries)
        • Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule
      • Tubular section
        • Proximal convoluted tubule
        • Loop of Henle
        • Distal convoluted tubule
    • Collecting duct
Nephron
  • Renal corpuscle
  • Tubular section
  • Renal corpuscle: only in cortex
    • Tuft of capillaries called glomerulus
    • Surrounded by cup-shaped, hollow glomerular(Bowman’s) capsule
refer to this pic as we go
(refer to this pic as we go)

Visceral layer of capsule has podocytes

  • Unusual branching epithelial cells
  • Foot processes with slit processes between them

-------------------

slide19

The capillary pores (fenestrations) restrict the passage of the largest elements such as blood cells

The basement membrane and slit diaphragm hold back all but the smallest proteins while letting through small molecules such as water, ions, glucose, amino acids, and urea

Scanning EM of podocytes clinging to capillaries (left) and filtration membrane diagram (right)

nephron20

Uriniferous tubule (anatomical unit for forming urine)

    • Nephron
      • Renal corpuscle (in cortex)
        • Glomerulus (tuft of capillaries)
        • Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule
      • Tubular section
        • Proximal convoluted tubule
        • Loop of Henle
        • Distal convoluted tubule
    • Collecting duct
Nephron
  • Renal corpuscle
  • Tubular section

(processes the filtrate)

    • Proximal convoluted tubule
    • Loop of Henle
    • Distal convoluted tubule

(ends by joining

collecting duct)

proximal convoluted tubule

Uriniferous tubule (anatomical unit for forming urine)

    • Nephron
      • Renal corpuscle (in cortex)
        • Glomerulus (tuft of capillaries)
        • Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule
      • Tubular section
        • Proximal convoluted tubule
        • Loop of Henle
        • Distal convoluted tubule
    • Collecting duct
Proximal convoluted tubule
  • Confined to renal cortex
  • Cuboidal epithelial cells with long microvilli (fuzzy appearance in pics)
  • Resorption of water, ions and solutes

*

loop of henle

Uriniferous tubule (anatomical unit for forming urine)

    • Nephron
      • Renal corpuscle (in cortex)
        • Glomerulus (tuft of capillaries)
        • Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule
      • Tubular section
        • Proximal convoluted tubule
        • Loop of Henle
        • Distal convoluted tubule
    • Collecting duct
Loop of Henle
  • Descending limb
  • Thin segment
  • Thick ascending limb
distal convoluted tubule

Uriniferous tubule (anatomical unit for forming urine)

    • Nephron
      • Renal corpuscle (in cortex)
        • Glomerulus (tuft of capillaries)
        • Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule
      • Tubular section
        • Proximal convoluted tubule
        • Loop of Henle
        • Distal convoluted tubule
    • Collecting duct
Distal convoluted tubule
  • Confined to the renal cortex
  • Simple cuboidal epithelium
  • Selective secretion and resorption of ions
classes of nephrons
Classes of nephrons
  • Cortical nephrons
    • 85% of all nephrons
    • Almost entirely within cortex
  • Juxtamedullary nephrons
    • Renal corpuscles near cortex-medulla junction
collecting ducts

Uriniferous tubule (anatomical unit for forming urine)

    • Nephron
      • Renal corpuscle (in cortex)
        • Glomerulus (tuft of capillaries)
        • Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule
      • Tubular section
        • Proximal convoluted tubule
        • Loop of Henle
        • Distal convoluted tubule
    • Collecting duct
Collecting Ducts
  • Each receives urine from several nephrons
  • Run straight through cortex into the deep medulla

Collecting Duct

collecting ducts26

Uriniferous tubules

1. Nephron

2. Collecting ducts

Collecting Ducts
  • At papilla of pyramid* ducts join to form larger papillary ducts
  • Empty into minor calices
  • Role: conserve body fluids

*

the collecting ducts
The collecting ducts
  • The most important role is to conserve body fluids
  • When the body must conserve water, the posterior pituitary gland secretes ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
  • ADH increases the permeability of the collecting tubules and distal tubules to water so more is reabsorbed
  • This decreases the total volume of urine
  • Alcohol inhibits the release of ADH, so less water is reabsorbed producing copious amounts of dilute urine (can cause dehydration)
vessels
Vessels
  • Afferent and efferent arterioles associated with glomerular capillaries
    • Allows high pressure for forcing filtrate out of blood
    • About 20% of renal plasma flow is filtered each minute (125 ml/min): this is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), an important clinical measure of renal function
      • This is about one liter every 8 minutes (only 1% ends up as urine)
  • Peritubular capillaries arise from efferent arterioles
    • Absorb solutes and water from tubule cells
slide29

(vessels, continued)

The Vasa recta

The Vasa recta is a portion of the peritubular capillary system which enters the medulla where the solute concentration in the interstitium is high. It acts with the loop of Henle to concentrate the urine by a complex mechanism of counter current exchange using urea. If the vasa recta did not exist, the high concentration of solutes in the medullary interstitium would be washed out.

____vasa recta

juxtaglomerular apparatus
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
  • Regulation of blood pressure
  • Granule (jg cells) – modified muscle cells secreting renin in response to falling blood pressure in afferent arteriole
  • Macula densa – chemoreceptors which secrete renin if solute concentration falls

Renin-angiotensin mechanism:

Sequence of reactions resulting in aldosterone secretion from adrenal cortex: increases sodium resorption from distal convoluted tubules: water follows, blood volume increases and blood pressure increases

for studying
For studying

Parts of the kidney:1. Renal pyramid2. Efferent vessel3. Renal artery4. Renal vein5. Renal hilum6. Renal pelvis7. Ureter8. Minor calyx9. Renal capsule10. Inferior renal capsule11. Superior renal capsule12. Afferent vessel13. Nephron14. Minor calyx15. Major calyx16. Renal papilla17. Renal column

the ureters
The Ureters
  • Slender tubes about 25 cm (10 “) long leaving each renal pelvis
  • One for each kidney carrying urine to the bladder
  • Descend retroperitonealy and cross pelvic brim
  • Enter posterolateral corners of bladder
  • Run medially within posterior bladder wall before opening into interior
  • This oblique entry helps prevent backflow of urine
ureters play an active role in transporting urine it s not just by gravity
Ureters play an active role in transporting urine (it’s not just by gravity)

Three basic layers

  • Transitional epithelium of mucosa stretches when ureters fill
  • Muscularis
    • Inner longitudinal, outer circular layers
    • Inferior 3rd with extra longitudinal layer)
    • Stimulated to contract when urine in ureter: peristaltic waves to propel urine to bladder
  • Adventitia (external)
urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder
  • Collapsible muscular sac
  • Stores and expels urine
  • Lies on pelvic floor posterior to pubic symphysis
    • Males: anterior to rectum
    • Females: just anterior to the vagina and uterus

See also brief atlas

slide41
If full: bladder is spherical and extends into abdominal cavity (holds about 500 ml or 1 pt)
  • If empty: bladder lies entirely within pelvis with shape like upside-down pyramid
  • Urine exits via the urethra
  • Trigone is inside area between ureters and urethra: prone to infection (see slide 38)
slide42
Bladder wall has three layers (same as ureters)
  • Mucosa with distensible transitional epithelium and lamnia propria (can stretch)
  • Thick muscularis called the detrusor muscle
    • 3 layers of highly intermingled smooth muscle
    • Squeezes urine out
  • Fibrous adventitia
the urethra
The Urethra
  • Smooth muscle with inner mucosa
    • Changes from transitional through stages to stratified squamous near end
    • Drains urine out of the bladder and body
  • Male: about 20 cm (8”) long
  • Female: 3-4 cm (1.5”) long
    • Short length is why females have more urinary tract infections than males - ascending bacteria from stool contamination

urethra

Urethra____

slide44
Urethral sphincters
    • Internal: involuntary sphincter of smooth muscle
    • External: skeletal muscle inhibits urination voluntarily until proper time (levator anni muscle also helps voluntary constriction)

Males: urethra has three regions (see right)

_________trigone

1. Prostatic urethra__________

2. Membranous urethra____

3. Spongy or penile urethra_____

female

slide46
Micturition

AKA:

    • Voiding
    • Urinating
    • Emptying the bladder

(See book for diagram

explanation p 701)

KNOW:

Micturition center of brain: pons

(but heavily influenced by higher centers)

Parasympathetic: to void

Sympathetic: inhibits micturition