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THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION. CALVINISM TEARING DOWN THE ROMAN EMPIRE. THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION. Revolution in religious thought & practice. Challenged established authority & secured triumph of secular power. Shaped identities & changed map of Europe.

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THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION


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slide1

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION

CALVINISM TEARING DOWN THE ROMAN EMPIRE

slide2

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION

Revolution in religious thought & practice

  • Challenged established authority & secured triumph of secular power
  • Shaped identities & changed map of Europe
  • Contributed to centuries of violent conflict
  • Contributed to ascendancy of individualism
slide3

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION

Continuing crisis of the Church

  • Growing popular dissatisfaction
  • too much emphasis on ritual
  • increasing secularization
  • wealth, corruption, abuse

Caricature of Pope Alexander VI

slide4

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION

Continuing crisis of the Church

  • Calls for reform
    • John Wycliffe
    • Jan Hus
    • Erasmus

Jan Hus, burnt at stake

Jan Hus

John Wycliffe

Erasmus

slide5

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION

Continuing crisis of the Church

  • Personal & spiritual crises
  • rejection of formal ritual & doctrine
  • emphasis on personal salvation
slide6

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION

MARTIN LUTHER (1483-1546)

  • “Justification by Faith Alone”
  • good works = evidence of grace, not cause
  • JOHANNES TETZEL
  • selling indulgences - 1517
  • authorized by Pope
slide7

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION

MARTIN LUTHER (1483-1546)

  • Ninety-Five Theses (1517)
  • condemned selling of indulgences
  • only inner grace & faith guaranteed salvation
  • denied papal authority over faith

Luther nails Ninety-Five Theses to

Wittenburg Castle, Oct. 31, 1517

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THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION

MARTIN LUTHER (1483-1546)

  • Revised Christian doctrine
  • clergy no different than rest
  • rejected belief in purgatory
  • reduced 7 sacraments to 2: baptism & communion
  • called for end of monasteries

The balance: The Church v. the Bible

slide9

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION

LUTHERANISM

  • Quickly spread through Germany
  • Led to political, economic & social upheaval
  • rulers used it as pretense to attack neighbors
  • peasants used it as pretense to revolt against overlords
  • led to extreme religious movements & zealotry

German Peasants’ Revolt, 1524